Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ghren-   'to grind, rub, stroke hard'

Semantic Field(s): to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: grindan, gryndan vb.str to grind W7/ASD
grīst n grist W7
grund n.masc ground, (surface of) earth LRC
Middle English: grinden vb to grind W7
grist n grist W7
ground n ground W7
refreynen vb to refrain W7
English: chondr(o)- pfx cartilage AHD
chondromalacia n abnormal softening/degeneration of joint cartilage AHD
fraise n obstacle of pointed stakes in rampart AHD/W7
frenulum n small connective membrane fold AHD
frenum n connective membrane fold serving to support/restrain AHD/W7
grind, ground vb.str to reduce to powder via friction AHD/W7
grist n grain for grinding AHD/W7
ground n bottom (of water body) W7
hypochondria n depression of mind/spirits caused by imaginary physical ailment AHD/W7
mitochondrion n chondriosome: body found in cells AHD/W7
refrain vb to curb, restrain AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: grund n ground ASD
Dutch: grintzand n gravel GED
Old Saxon: grund n ground ASD
Middle Low German: grint n.str.masc scab GED
Old High German: grint n.str.masc scab GED
grunt n.str.masc ground GED
German: Grund n.masc ground ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: grund n.fem ground; field, (surface of) earth LRC
Old Icelandic: grandi n.masc sandbank in water GED
grunn n.neut shallow place GED
grunn(r) n.masc ground GED
grunnr adj shallow GED
Icelandic: grunnr n ground ASD
Danish: grund n ground, basis TLL
Swedish: grand n sand; scab GED
grund n ground, basis TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: afgrundiþa n abyss ASD
*grinda-fraþjis adj faint-hearted GED
grundu-waddjus n.masc foundation GED
Latin: firmus adj firm, solid W7
frendo, frendere vb to grind, crush W7
frenum n.neut bit, reins, bridle; curb, restraint W7
refringo, refringere vb to check, destroy, break up W7
Late Latin: hypochondria n.fem upper abdomen W7
New Latin: hypochondria n.fem excessive fear of disease W7
mitochondrion n.neut mitochondrion W7
Middle French: refraindre vb to resound, restrain W7
French: fraise n fraise; wattle; countersink W7
Lithuanian: grándau vb to rub, scrape GED
gréndžiu vb to rub, scrape GED
Greek: ξηραίνω vb to dry up LRC
hypochondria n.fem parts under cartilage (of breastbone) W7
χόνδρος n.masc grain, groat(s); cartilage GED
χραίνω vb to smear, paint GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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