Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. gel-, gel-, glā-   'acorn, valonia; oak?'

Semantic Field(s): Acorn, Oak


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English: gland n (group of) cells selectively processing materials in blood AHD/W7
glanders n contagious/destructive bacterial disease (of horses) AHD/W7
glandular adj re: gland AHD
glans n conical vascular body forming extremity of penis AHD/W7
myrobalan n dried astringent East Indian fruit AHD/W7
valonia n dried acorn cups from Eurasian evergreen oak AHD/W7
Latin: glandula n.fem gland W7
glans, glandis n.fem acorn W7
myrobalanus n.masc aromatic acorn W7
Old French: glande n.fem glandular swelling on neck W7
Middle French: glandre n.fem glandular swelling on neck W7
mirobolant adj extraordinary W7
French: glande n.fem gland W7
Greek: balanos n.fem acorn W7
myrobalanos n.masc aromatic acorn W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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