Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. gel-, gelə-, glē-   'to flow, drip down; throw'

Semantic Field(s): to Flow, to Throw


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: arblast n arbalest W7
dēofol, dēoful, dīoful n.masc/neut devil ASD/W7
Middle English: arblast, arblest, arbelaste n arbalest CDC/W7
balade n ballad W7
deabolik adj diabolic W7
devel n devil W7
embolisme n embolism W7
parable n parable W7
parliament n parliament W7
parlour n parlor W7
probleme n problem W7
quailen vb to curdle W7
English: abulia n abnormal inability to act/make decisions AHD/W7
amphibole n hornblende AHD/W7
anabolism n cellular molecule-building chemical reactions TLL
arbalest n crossbow AHD/W7
astrobleme n meteor/comet impact pit/crater AHD
ball n large gathering for social dancing AHD/W7
ballad n dance song AHD/W2I
balladeer n singer of ballads AHD
ballet n dance with light flowing figures/movements AHD/W7
balletomane n ballet devotee AHD/W7
ballista n ancient military engine for hurling large missiles AHD/W7
bayadere n fabric with stripes in contrasting colors AHD/W7
belemnite n conical fossil shell of extinct cephalopod AHD/W7
bolide n very bright (exploding) meteor AHD
bolometer n sensitive resistance thermometer AHD/W7
boule n ancient Greek legislative council AHD/W7
devil n supreme evil being, e.g. Satan AHD/W7
devilish adj evil, sinister, re: devil W9
diabolic adj fiendish, re: devil AHD/W7
embolism n intercalation AHD/W7
emboly n gastrula formation by invagination of blastula wall AHD/W7
epiboly n one part growing around another AHD/W7
hyperbola n curve formed by intersection of plane with (certain type of) cone AHD/W7
hyperbole n extravagant exaggeration used as figure of speech AHD/W7
metabolism n processes of building up/destroying protoplasm incidental to life AHD/W7
palaver n long parley AHD/W7
parable n comparison AHD/W7
parabola n curve formed by intersection of right circular cone with plane parallel to element thereof AHD/W7
parley vb.intrans to confer, speak with one another AHD/W7
parliament n formal conference for discussing public affairs AHD/W7
parlor n room primarily used for conversation/reception of guests AHD/W7
parol n word of mouth AHD/W7
parole n promise made with/confirmed by pledge of honor AHD/W7
problem n question raised for consideration/solution AHD/W7
quail vb to wither, decline AHD/W7
symbol n creedal form AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: di(o)vel n.masc devil ASD
Frisian: deal, dijvel n.masc devil ASD
Dutch: bal n ball CDC
duivel n.masc devil ASD
Old Saxon: diabol, diobol, diuƀal, diuvil n.masc devil ASD
Old High German: quellan vb to well, gush W7
tiufal n.masc devil ASD
Middle High German: tievel, tiuvel n.masc devil ASD
German: Ball n ball CDC
Quelle n.fem spring, source LRC
quellen vb to well, gush LRC
Symbol n.neut symbol LRC
Teufel n.masc devil ASD
teuflisch adj devilish, diabolic LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: djöfull n.masc devil ASD
Danish: bal n ball CDC
diævel, dievel n.masc devil ASD
Swedish: bal n ball CDC
djefvul n.masc devil ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: diabaulus n.masc devil ASD
Latin: ballista n.fem ballist, ballista W7
coagulo, coagulāre vb to curdle W7
hyperbole n.fem exaggeration W7
problema n.neut problem W7
symbolum n.neut sign, symbol, token W7
Late Latin: amphibolus adj ambiguous W7
arcuballista n.fem arbalest W7
ballo, ballāre vb to dance W7
diabolicus adj diabolic W7
diabolus n.masc slanderer W7
parabola n.fem speech, parable W7
Medieval Latin: embolismus n.masc embolism W7
parabolō, parabolāre vb to speak in comparisons W7
New Latin: abulia, abuliae n.fem lack of will W7
hyperbola n.fem hyperbola W7
parabola n.fem parable, comparison W7
Portuguese: bailadeira n dancer AHD
bailar n to dance AHD
baile n ball CDC
ballada n ballad CDC
palavra n.fem word, speech, palaver W7
Spanish: baile n ball CDC
balada n ballad CDC
Old French: arbaleste, arbelest(r)e n.fem arbalest CDC/W7
bal n.masc ball W7
balade n ballad CDC
baller vb to dance W7
parlement n.masc language, discourse, action of speaking W7
parler vb to talk W7
parlour n.masc parlor; talker W7
Middle French: balade n.fem ballad W7
diabolique adj of the devil W7
parable n.fem parable W7
parler vb to speak W7
parole n.fem word spoken W7
problème n.masc problem W7
quailler vb to curdle W7
French: amphibole n.fem ambiguity W7
arbalète n arbalest CDC
bal n.masc ball W7
ballade n ballad CDC
ballet n.masc ballet W7
bayadère n.fem Hindu dancing girl W7
bélemnite n.fem belemnite, type of mollusc W7
parabole n parable TLL
parler vb to speak TLL
parole n.fem speech, uttered word W7
Old Provençal: balada n.fem dance, song sung while dancing W7
balar vb to dance W7
Old Occitan: arbalesta, albalesta n arbalest CDC
bal n ball CDC
ballada n ballad CDC
Italian: ballare vb to dance W7
ballata n ballad CDC
balletto n.masc ballet W7
ballo n.masc ball, dance W7
parlare vb to speak TLL
Albanian: simbol n symbol LRC
Greek: aboulia n indecision AHD
amphiballein vb to throw round, doubt W7
amphibolos adj ambiguous W7
ballizein vb to dance, jump about W7
ballistēs n.masc ballista W7
βάλλω vb to throw LRC
belemnon n.neut dart W7
blēma n missile AHD
bolē n.fem stroke, beam of light W7
βουλή n.fem will LRC
βούλομαι vb to wish, request LRC
diaballein vb to throw across, slander W7
diabolos n.masc slanderer W7
emballein vb to insert W7
embolē n.fem insertion W7
ἐπιβάλλω vb to throw on LRC
epibolē n.fem addition W7
metaballein vb to change W7
metabolē n.fem change W7
paraballein vb to compare W7
parabolē n.fem comparison W7
περιβάλλω vb to throw around LRC
proballein vb to throw forward W7
problēma n.neut problem, lit. something thrown forward W7
symballein vb to throw together, compare W7
symbolon n.neut token, sign, symbol used to prove identity W7
hyperballein vb to exceed W7
hyperbolē n.fem excess, hyperbole, hyperbola W7
Sanskrit: balbalīti vb to whirl W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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