Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: gē̆nā   'wife, queen, woman'

Semantic Field(s): Wife, Woman


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ben n woman GED
Irish: bean n woman W2I
bean-sīdhe n banshee CDC
Gaelic: bean n woman W2I
b(e)an-sīth n.fem banshee CDC/W7
Old English: cwēn n.str.fem queen, wife, woman ASD/GED
cwēne, cwȳne n.fem queen, quean, wife, woman ASD/W7
Middle English: quene n queen W7
English: banshee n female spirit whose wailing warns family of approaching death (Gaelic folklore) AHD/W7
-gyne n.sfx woman, female AHD/W7
gynecocracy n political supremacy of women AHD/W7
gynecology n study of women's hygiene/diseases AHD
gynoecium n pistils, aggregate of flower carpels AHD/W7
-gynous adj re: female(s) AHD/W7
quean n disreputable woman AHD/W7
queen n wife/widow of king AHD/W7
zenana n harem, seraglio AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: kween n.fem married woman ASD
Old Saxon: cwān, cwēna n.fem wife ASD
quān n.str.fem queen, wife, woman GED
Old High German: quena, chena, chone n.fem queen, wife, woman ASD
Middle High German: kon(e) n.fem wife ASD
German: Königin n.fem queen ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: kona n.fem queen, wife, woman LRC
Old Icelandic: kvān, kvæn n.str.fem queen, wife, woman GED
kvæna vb.wk to make one marry GED
ū-kvæntr adj unmarried GED
Icelandic: kona, kuna, kwān, kwǣn n queen, wife, woman ASD
Danish: kone, qwinde n wife, woman ASD
kvinde n woman TLL
Swedish: kvinna n woman TLL
kåna n.fem quean, low woman ASD
qwinna n.fem wife, woman ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: qens n.fem queen, wife, woman GED
qino n woman, female LRC
Latin: gynaeceum n.neut women's apartments W7
New Latin: gynoecium n.neut women's apartments W7
-gynus sfx of women W7
Old Prussian: genno n woman GED
Old Church Slavonic: žena n.fem wife, woman LRC
Russian: ženà n wife GED
Boeotian: βανά n wife, lady GED
Greek: gynaikeion n.neut gynoecium W7
γυναῖκες women GED
gynaikokratia n.fem gynecocracy W7
gynaikos adj pertaining to women W7
γυνή n.fem wife, woman LRC
μνηστεύω vb to woo, espouse LRC
Armenian: kin n wife, woman LRC
Avestan: gənā n wife, woman GED
ǰaini- n woman GED
ǰąni- n woman GED
Sanskrit: jáni- n wife, woman GED
jñā́- n goddess, divine female GED
Hindi: zanāna n harem W7
Tocharian B: klīye, klyiye n woman GED
śana n wife GED
Tocharian A: kuli n woman GED
śäm n wife GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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