Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ger-, gerə-   'to swallow; craw, gorge, throat'

Semantic Field(s): Throat


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: crawa n craw W7
Middle English: crawe n craw W7
devouren vb to devour W7
garget n throat W7
gorge n gorge W7
gorget n gorget AHD
English: ambrosia n food/unguent of gods (Greek/Roman mythology) AHD/W7
ambrosial adj immortal, re: ambrosia W7
bronchial adj re: bronchi W7
bronchiectasis n chronic dilation of bronchial tubes AHD
bronch(o)- pfx bronchus, bronchial AHD
bronchus, bronchi n primary division of trachea leading to lungs AHD/W7
carnivore n flesh-eating animal W7
craw n crop of bird/insect AHD/W7
devour vb.trans to eat greedily/ravenously AHD/W7
garget n mastitis of domestic animals AHD/W7
gorge n throat AHD/W7
gorget n armor/collar covering throat/shoulders AHD
gurgitation n swallowing AHD
hellebore n herb of crowfoot family AHD/W7
herbivore n plant-eating animal W7
hryvnia n Ukraine currency unit AHD
ingurgitate vb.trans to guzzle, swallow greedily/in large quantity AHD/W7
insectivore n insect-eating plant/animal LRC
locavore n one who prefers locally grown food LRC
omnivore n flesh- and plant-eating animal LRC
regurgitate vb to be thrown/poured back AHD/W7
scrag n scrawny/rawboned person/animal AHD/W7
theobromine n bitter, weakly basic compound related to caffeine AHD/W7
voracious adj ravenous, having huge appetie AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: craaghe n neck, gorge AHD
Old High German: querdar n bait W7
German: Köder n.masc bait LRC
Kragen n.masc neck, collar TLL
North Germanic  
Swedish: krage n collar SAO
Latin: ambrosia n.fem ambrosia AHD/CLD
ambrosius, ambrosia, ambrosium adj divine, ambrosial CLD
devoro, devorare vb to devour W7
gurges, gurgitis n.masc throat, whirlpool W7
helleborus n.masc hellebore W7
ingurgito, ingurgitare, ingurgitavi, ingurgitatus vb to pour in, swallow like a glutton W7
vorax, voracis adj voracious, devouring W7
voro, vorāre vb to devour W7
Late Latin: gurga n.fem throat, whirlpool W7
gurgito, gurgitāre vb to engulf W7
Medieval Latin: regurgito, regurgitare, regurgitavi, regurgitatus vb to regurgitate W7
New Latin: bronchus n.masc bronchus W7
Theobroma n.fem genus of trees W7
Old French: gorge n gorge AHD
gorgete n.dim gorget, little gorge AHD
Middle French: devourer vb to devour W7
gargate n.masc throat W7
gargouiller vb to gargle W7
gorge n.fem throat W7
Lithuanian: gėris n.masc goodness LRC
Russian: griva n mane AHD
Ukrainian: hryvnia n hryvnia AHD
Homeric Greek: ἀμβροσίη adj/n ambrosia LRC
ἀμβρόσιος adj/n divine, ambrosial LRC
Greek: ἄμβροτος adj divine, ambrosial, immortalizing AHD
bibrōskein vb to devour W7
bronchos n.masc trachea W7
brōma n.neut food W7
helleboros n.masc plant thought to remedy madness W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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