Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ger-, gerə-, gerəu-, gerī-   'grave, heavy'

Semantic Field(s): Heavy, Weighty


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bair adj heavy RPN
bráu, bró n mill RPN
Breton: breo n mill RPN
Cornish: brou n mill RPN
Old Welsh: breuan n mill RPN
Welsh: bryw adj/n strong/strength RPN
Old English: cweorn n.fem quern, (hand)mill GED/RPN
Middle English: agreven vb to aggrieve W7
brigaunt n brigand W7
brute adj brute W7
gref n grief W7
greven vb to grieve W7
quern n quern W7
English: aggravate vb.trans to burden, make heavy AHD/W7
aggrieve vb.trans to distress, give pain/trouble to AHD/W7
-bar sfx re: weight/pressure AHD/W7
bar n unit of (barometric) pressure AHD/W7
barite n barium sulfate (mineral) AHD/W7
baritone n male singing voice between bass and tenor AHD/W7
barium n silver-white malleable metallic element AHD/W7
bar(o)- pfx weight AHD/W7
barycenter n center of mass AHD
baryon n subatomic particle containing 3 quarks AHD
barysphere n earth's core AHD
baryta n barium compound AHD/W7
blitzkrieg n lit. lightning war(fare) AHD/W7
brig n brigantine AHD
brigade n large body of troops AHD/W7
brigand n thief, robber, bandit, plunderer AHD/W7
brigantine n two-masted square-rigged ship AHD/W7
brio n vigor, vivacity AHD
brut adj having less than 1.5% sugar AHD/W7
brute adj/n (re:) beast AHD/W7
brutish adj crude, beastly, re: animal AHD
centrobaric adj re: center of gravity AHD
charivari n shivaree AHD/W7
grave adj weighty, authoritative AHD/W7
gravid adj pregnant AHD/W7
gravimeter n device for determining specific gravity AHD/W7
gravitate vb to move via gravitation AHD/W7
gravitation n mutual attraction via mass LRC
gravity n dignity/sobriety of bearing AHD/W7
grief n grievance AHD/W7
grieve vb to distress, cause to suffer AHD/W7
guru n personal religious teacher, spiritual guide (Hinduism) AHD/W7
isallobar n map/chart line depicting equal changes in barometric pressure AHD/W7
isobar n map/chart line depicting places with equal barometric pressure AHD/W7
quern n primitive grain-grinding hand mill AHD/W7
sitzkrieg n static/nonaggressive warfare AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: quern n.fem quern, millstone GED
Old Saxon: quern n.fem quern, millstone GED/RPN
Old High German: quirn, churn n.fem quern, millstone GED
quirna, chwirna n.fem quern, millstone GED
German: Bar n.neut bar W7
Blitzkrieg n.masc lightning war(fare) W7
Brigade n.fem brigade LRC
Krieg n.masc war(fare) W7
Querne n.fem quern LRC
Sitzkrieg n.masc static/nonaggressive warfare W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: kyrr adj quiet LRC
Old Icelandic: kvern n.fem quern, millstone GED/RPN
East Germanic  
Gothic: (asilu-)qairnus n (donkey-)mill RPN
kaurjan vb.wk to oppress, be a burden GED
kaurjos heavy GED/W7
kaurus adj heavy, weighty, oppressive GED
Latin: aggravō, aggravāre, aggravāvī, aggravātus vb to make heavier W7
brūtus adj heavy; dull, stupid, brutish AHD/W7
gravidus adj pregnant W7
gravis, gravis, grave adj grave, heavy, serious LRC
gravitas, gravitatis n.fem gravity, seriousness W7
gravō, gravāre vb to burden W7
Vulgar Latin: grevis adj heavy, serious W7
Late Latin: caribaria n.fem headache W7
New Latin: baryta n.fem barium compound W7
Spanish: brio n brio AHD
Old French: agrever vb to aggrieve AHD
gref adj grave, heavy W7
grever vb to grieve, torment, weigh down W7
Middle French: agrever vb to aggrieve, make sad W7
brigand n.masc brigand W7
brigantin n.masc brigantine W7
brut adj rough W7
grave adj heavy, serious W7
gravité n.fem gravity W7
French: baryton n.masc baritone W7
brigade n.fem patrol, brigade W7
brut adj brut; brutish W7
charivari n.masc imbroglio, confused situation W7
gravi- pfx weight W7
gravimètre n.masc gravimeter W7
Provençal: briu n brio AHD
Old Italian: briga n strife AHD
brigante n.masc skirmisher AHD
brigantino n.masc brigantine, skirmishing ship AHD/W7
brigare vb to fight W7
Italian: baritono n.masc baritone W7
brigare vb to intrigue, solicit, canvass for CID/W7
brigata n.fem company, party of friends CID/W7
brio n brio AHD
Lithuanian: gìrna n millstone RPN
Latvian: dzir̃navas n mill RPN
Old Church Slavonic: žrъnovъ n millstone RPN
žrъny n mill RPN
Homeric Greek: βαρύς adj heavy, weighty, grievous RPN
Greek: βάρος n.neut weight LS
βᾰρύτης n.fem weight, heaviness LS
βᾰρύ-τονος adj deep-sounding LS
karēbaria n.fem headache W7
ὕβρις n.neut violence LRC
Armenian: erkan n millstone RPN
Avestan: gouru- n viscous libation RPN
Kashmiri: goru adj dense, solid RPN
Sanskrit: garimán- n weight, heaviness RPN
gárīyas adj.comp heavier RPN
gurú-ḥ adj heavy, weighty; venerable RPN
grā́van- n stone for pressing Soma RPN
Hindi: gurū adj heavy; venerable W7
Tocharian B: kärweñäṣṣe adj stony RPN
kärweñe n stone, rock RPN
krāmär n weight, heaviness RPN
kramartse adj heavy RPN
Tocharian A: krāmärts adj heavy RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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