Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ghen(-ə)-   'to hit, strike, fend'

Semantic Field(s): to Hit, Strike, Beat


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: gonim vb to wound, slay RPN
guin n wound RPN
Old English: gūþ n.fem war, fight, battle RPN
gūþ-wine n.masc [kenning for] sword, lit. war-friend ASD
Middle English: defenden vb to defend W7
defens(e) n defense W7
fenden vb to defend W7
fens n fence, defense W7
gonne, gunne n gun W7
offenden vb to offend W7
offense n offense W7
English: bonze n Buddhist monk/priest AHD/W7
defend vb to prevent AHD/W7
defense n act of defending/preventing AHD/W7
fence n defense, means of protection AHD/W7
fend vb to defend AHD/W7
Gandalf prop.n grey/white wizard in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
gonfalon n ensign of certain princes/states (medieval Italy) AHD/W7
gun n piece of ordnance with high muzzle velocity/flat trajectory AHD/W7
Guthláf prop.n Theoden's flag-bearer in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Gúthwinë prop.n Eomer's sword in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
offend vb to sin, transgress moral/divine law AHD/W7
offense n act of stumbling AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: gūðea n battle LRC
Old High German: gund- n war, fight, battle RPN
North Germanic  
Old Norse: Gandálfr prop.n.masc Gandalf (Voluspa dwarf) TPE
gandálfr n.masc wizard, lit. staff-elf LRC
gandr n.masc magic staff/spirit LRC
guðr n.fem war, fight, battle LRC
Old Icelandic: gunnr n war, fight, battle RPN
Icelandic: gunnr, gūðr n war ASD
Latin: dēfendō, dēfendere, defendī, defensus vb to defend, repel, ward off RPN
-fendere sfx to strike W7
offendō, offendere vb to hit, strike, knock, dash against RPN
offēnsō, offēnsāre vb.freq to strike, dash against RPN
offensus vb.ptc offended W7
Vulgar Latin: defensa n.fem defense W7
Portuguese: bonzo n bonze W7
Old French: defendre vb to defend W7
defense n.fem defense W7
Middle French: offendre vb to offend W7
offense n.fem offense W7
French: bonze n bonze W7
Italian: gonfalone n.masc gonfalon, standard, banner CID/W7
Lithuanian: geniù, genė́ti vb to lop, prune, trim RPN
genù, giñti vb to drive RPN
gìnti, gìna, gýnė vb to defend; drive (cattle) LRC
Latvian: dzìt vb to drive (cattle) LRC
Czech: úhona n damage, injury LRC
Serbo-Croatian: prijègon n battle LRC
Old Church Slavonic: ženǫ vb to drive LRC
Russian: gon n hunt, driving LRC
Albanian: gjanj vb to hunt LRC
Homeric Greek: φόνος n bloodshed, murder, slaughter RPN
Hittite: ku-en-zi vb to strike, kill, slay RPN
Armenian: ganem vb to strike, beat RPN
Avestan: ǰainti vb to strike, beat, kill RPN
Sanskrit: hánti vb to smite, hurt, kill RPN
Tocharian A: kũnac n battle LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TPE=Lee M. Hollander: The Poetic Edda (1962)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at