Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑hu̯ē̆r-   'wild animal'

Semantic Field(s): Animal


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: fiers adj fierce W7
triacle n treacle W7
English: baluchithere n hornless rhinoceros-like mammal AHD
chalicothere n extinct 3-toed ungulate mammal AHD
dinothere n extinct proboscidean mammal with downward-pointing tusks AHD/W7
eutherian adj re: placental mammals AHD/W7
feral adj savage, re: wild beast AHD/W7
ferine adj feral AHD/W7
ferocious adj savage, fierce AHD/W7
fierce adj violently hostile/aggressive in temperament AHD/W7
indricothere n extinct hornless rhinoceros AHD
megathere n extinct ground sloth AHD/W7
theropod n large carnivorous saurischian dinosaur AHD
treacle n medicinal compound formerly used as poison remedy AHD/W7
Latin: fera n.fem wild animal W7
ferinus adj ferine, re: wild animal W7
ferox, ferocis adj fierce, ferocious W7
ferus adj feral W7
theriaca n.fem antidote against poisonous bite W7
Medieval Latin: feralis adj feral W7
New Latin: Deinotherium n.neut (genus name) W7
Megatherium n.neut (genus name) W7
-therium sfx beast W7
Old French: fiers adj fierce W7
Middle French: triacle n.masc table syrup, poison antidote W7
Lithuanian: žvėrìs n.masc beast LRC
Homeric Greek: θήρ n.masc/fem wild animal LRC
θηρίον n.neut beast, wild animal LS
Greek: deinos adj terrible W7
thēriakē n.fem antidote against poisonous bite W7
thēriakos adj re: wild animal W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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