Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: gher-   'warm, hot'

Semantic Field(s): Hot, Warm


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: fogeir vb to heat, warm up LRC
Middle Irish: gert n milk W7
Breton: gred n warmth LRC
Old English: gearu adj prepared LRC
gor n.neut gore, dirt, filth, dung, excrement ASD/IEW
wearm adj warm LRC
Middle English: furnas n furnace W7
gore n gore, filth W7
warm adj warm LRC
English: forceps n instrument for grasping/holding/exerting traction AHD/W7
forcipate adj forked, shaped like forceps/pincers AHD
furnace n enclosed structure for producing heat AHD/W7
German prop.n language/inhabitant of Germany W7
Germanic prop.adj re: German/Germany W7
Germany prop.n central European country W7
ghee n semifluid clarified butter AHD/W7
Gorbag prop.n orc in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
gore n (clotted) blood W7
gorgûn term for orcs in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hornito n low volcanic mound AHD
-therm n.sfx animal having (specified) body temperature AHD/W7
therm n unit of heat quantity AHD/W7
-thermy n.sfx state of heat AHD/W7
warm adj moderately heated LRC
West Germanic  
Old High German: garo adj ready LRC
gor n gore, dirt, filth, dung, excrement ASD
warm adj warm LRC
German: gar adj done, cooked LRC
germanisch adj Germanic LRC
warm adj warm LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: varmr adj warm LRC
Old Icelandic: gera adj ready, prepared LRC
Icelandic: gor n gore, dirt, filth, dung, excrement ASD
Swedish: varm adj warm TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: warmjan vb to warm LRC
Latin: forceps n.masc tongs, pliers, pincers, forceps W7
formus adj hot, warm W7
fornax, fornacis n.fem furnace, fireplace, oven W7
Germanus, Germana, Germanum adj re: Germans LRC
New Latin: -thermia sfx -thermy, heat W7
Spanish: hornito n.dim little oven AHD
horno n oven AHD
Old French: fornaise n.fem furnace, fireplace W7
Old Prussian: goro n hearth LRC
Lithuanian: gãras n.masc steam LRC
vìrti vb to cook, boil LRC
Latvian: garš n.masc steam; spirit LRC
virt vb to cook, boil LRC
Polish: garniec n pot LRC
Czech: horký adj warm LRC
Serbo-Croatian: bitter n hearth LRC
Old Church Slavonic: goritъ vb to burn LRC
Russian: gorn n hearth LRC
Gheg: zjarm adj warm IEW
Tosk: zjarr n fire, heat IEW
zjarrtë adj fiery, passionate LRC
Homeric Greek: θερμός adj hot, warm LRC
θέρος n summer, warm season LRC
θέρω vb to warm, be warm LRC
Greek: thermē n.fem heat W7
Hittite: war-(nu-) vb to burn, set afire LRC
Armenian: jerm vb to heat LRC
ǰer n warmth LRC
varim vb to burn LRC
Avestan: garəmo adj warm LRC
Sanskrit: gharmá- n hot coals LRC
ghṛta n milk, clarified butter W7
háras adj glowing LRC
Hindi: ghī n clarified butter W7
Tocharian A: śärme adj warm LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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