Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. i̯eu-   'young'

Semantic Field(s): Young


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ōac adj young LRC
Irish: gall n.masc foreigner W7
gallōglach n.masc heavily-armed soldier W7/IED
ōglach n.masc soldier W7
Welsh: ieuanc adj young LRC
Old English: gēoguþ, gī(o)goþ, īuguþ n.fem youth W7/ASD
ge(o)ng, gi(o)ng, g(i)ung adj young W7/ASD
Middle English: June prop.n June W7
yong adj young W7
youthe n youth W7
English: gallowglass n mercenary/retainer of Irish chief AHD/W7
June prop.n 6th month (in Gregorian calendar) AHD/W7
junior adj younger AHD/W7
junior n person younger than another AHD/W7
juvenile adj young, physiologically immature/undeveloped AHD/W7
rejuvenate vb to reinvigorate, make young/youthful again AHD/W7
young adj re: first/early phase of life/growth/development AHD/W7
youngster n child, young person W7
youth n life phase of growth/development AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: jung, jong adj young ASD
Frisian: jong adj young ASD
Dutch: jong adj young ASD
jongen n boy, youngster TLL
Old Saxon: juguð n youth ASD
jung adj young ASD
Low German: jung, junk adj young ASD
Old High German: jugund n youth ASD
jung adj young W7
Middle High German: junc adj young ASD
German: Jugend n.fem youth, adolescence ASD
jung adj young ASD
Junge n.masc boy, lad, youngster LRC
Junge n.neut drop, hatchling LRC
Juni n.masc June LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: ungr adj young LRC
Icelandic: ungr adj young ASD
Danish: ung adj young ASD
Swedish: ung adj young ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: jungs adj young LRC
yuggs adj young ASD
Latin: junior adj.comp younger W7
Junius prop.n.masc June W7
juvenilis adj re: young person W7
juvenis n.masc/fem young man/woman W7
Middle French: Juin prop.n.masc June W7
French: juvénile adj re: young person W7
Lithuanian: jáunos adj young LRC
Latvian: jauna, jaûns adj young, new LRC
Old Church Slavonic: junz adj young LRC
Homeric Greek: αἰζηός adj strong, lusty, vigorous LRC
Avestan: yavan adj young LRC
Sanskrit: yúvā n youth LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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