Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: kadh-   'to guard, cover, protect'

Semantic Field(s): to Save, Preserve, Keep Safe


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hæt(t) n.masc hat W7/ASD
hēdan vb.wk to heed W7/ASD
hōd n.masc hood W7/ASD
Middle English: hat n hat W7
heeden vb to heed W7
hood n hood W7
English: hat n head covering with brim/shaped crown AHD/W7
heed vb to pay attention AHD/W7
hood n flexible covering for head/neck AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: hōdian vb to guard, take care of ASD
Old High German: huot, hōt n.masc head covering W7/ASD
huota vb to guard W7
huoten vb to heed ASD
German: Hut n.masc hat ASD
hüten vb to heed ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: heðinn n.masc fur coat/cloak LRC
Hǫttr prop.n.masc Hott [personal name] LRC
Icelandic: höttr n hood, cowl ASD
Danish: hat n hat ASD
Swedish: hatt n hat TLL


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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