Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. k̑ad-   'to fall'

Semantic Field(s): to Fall


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: accident n accident W7
cadence n cadence W7
cas n case W7
casual adj casual W7
chance n chance W7
decayen vb to decay W7
eschete n escheat W7
incident n incident W7
occasion n occasion W7
English: accident n event occurring by chance/from unknown causes AHD/W7
accidental adj nonessential, re: accident W7
cadaver n corpse (intended for dissection) AHD/W7
cadence n rhythmic sequence/flow of language sounds AHD/W7
cadent adj falling AHD/W7
caducous adj falling off easily/before normal time AHD/W7
cascade n steep, multiple fall of water AHD/W7
case n set of circumstances/conditions AHD/W7
casual adj subject to/resulting from/occurring by chance AHD/W7
casualty n disaster, serious/fatal accident AHD/W7
casuist n one skilled in/given to studying conscience in conduct AHD/W7
chance n something happening unpredictably, without apparent cause AHD/W7
chute n waterfall AHD/W7
decay vb to decline from sound/prosperous condition AHD/W7
deciduous adj falling off (e.g. of leaves in autumn) AHD/W7
escheat n reversion of property to crown/state AHD/W7
incident n event, happening, occurrence AHD/W7
occasion n (favorable) circumstance/opportunity AHD/W7
occident n the west, western lands/regions AHD
occidental adj western, re: occident W7
recidivate vb to relapse, backslide, return to crime AHD
recidivism n tendency to recidivate AHD
Latin: accidens, accidentis adj/vb.ptc accidental W7
accido, accidere vb to happen W7
cadaver n.neut corpse W7
cado, cadere, cecidi, casus vb to fall W7
caducus adj transitory, perishable W7
casus, casūs n.masc fall, chance W7
decido, decidere vb to cut off, decide W7
incido, incidere vb to fall into, happen W7
occasio, occasionis n.fem chance, occasion W7
occido, occidere, occidi, occasus vb to fall, chance W7
Vulgar Latin: cadentia n.fem fall W7
casico, casicare vb to fall W7
excadeo, excadere vb to fall out W7
Late Latin: casualis adj casual W7
Portuguese: cair vb to fall TLL
Spanish: caer vb to fall TLL
casuista n.masc/fem casuist W7
Old French: accident n accident, chance event AHD
cas n.masc fall, situation W7
chance n.fem luck W7
cheoir vb to fall W7
chute n.fem chute W7
escheoir vb to fall, devolve W7
eschete n.fem reversion of property W7
Old North French: decaïr vb to decay W7
Middle French: accident n.masc accident, casualty W7
casuel adj casual W7
incident n.masc incident W7
occasion n.fem chance, occasion W7
French: cascade n.fem cascade, waterfall W7
choir vb.arch to fall TLL
chute n.fem chute W7
Old Italian: cadenza n.fem cadence, rythm W7
cadere vb to fall W7
Italian: cadere vb to fall TLL
cascare vb to fall W7
cascata n.fem cascade W7
Greek: ptōsis n.fem act of falling W7
Sanskrit: śad vb to fall W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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