Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: kaghlo-   'chalk, pebble'

Semantic Field(s): Rock, Stone


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: cealc n.masc chalk, lime, cement, plaster ASD/KEW
hæg(e)l, hagol, hagal n.masc hail; (name for) H-rune ASD/W7
Middle English: chalk n chalk W7
hail n hail W7
English: chalk n soft gray/white calcitic limestone W7
hail n ice precipitation as layered balls/lumps AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: hagel n hail TLL
kalk n chalk, lime TLL
Middle Low German: kalk n chalk, lime W7
Old High German: hagal n.masc hail ASD/W7
kalk n chalk, lime, plaster KDW
German: Hagel n.masc hail ASD
Kalk n chalk, lime TLL
North Germanic  
Runic: *hagalaz n hail; (name for) H-rune LRC
Old Norse: kalka vb to plaster with lime KNW
Icelandic: hagl n hail ASD
Danish: hagl n hail TLL
kalk n chalk, lime TLL
Swedish: hagel n hail TLL
kalk n chalk, lime TLL
Latin: calx, calcis n.fem chalk, lime; stone, pebble CLD
Homeric Greek: κάλαζα n hail LRC
Greek: κάχληξ n.masc pebble; gravel, shingle LS
χάλιξ n.masc/fem stone, pebble; gravel, rubble LS


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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