Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: kam-p-   'to bend'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: jambe n jamb W7
English: campaign n operations toward a goal TLL
campus n (school) grounds/buildings W7
campylobacter n lit. twisted bacteria AHD
campylotropous adj re: curved ovule AHD/W7
champion n final victor TLL
gam n leg AHD/W7
gambado n horse's spring/gambol AHD/W7
gambado n horseman's legging AHD/W7
gambit n chess opening: player risks minor pieces for position AHD/W7
gambol n prank, playful skipping/leaping about AHD/W7
gambrel n device for suspending slaughtered animals AHD/W7
gammon n ham, flitch of cured bacon AHD/W7
jamb n upright piece/surface forming side of opening AHD/W7
scampi n shrimp broiled/sauteed in garlic/butter sauce AHD
Latin: campus, campi n.masc plain, campus, open field LRC
Late Latin: camba n.fem act of tripping someone W7
gamba n.fem (animal) leg W7
Spanish: campeón n champion TLL
Old North French: gambe n.fem leg W7
gamberel n.masc gambrel W7
gambon n.masc ham W7
Middle French: gambade n.fem gambado, horse's spring W7
jambe n.fem leg W7
French: champion n champion TLL
gambade n.fem gambado, horse's spring W7
gambe n.fem.arch leg W7
Old Provençal: camba n.fem leg W7
Italian: gamba n.fem (animal) leg W7
gambale n.masc boot-tree W7
gambetto n.masc kick, act of tripping W7
Homeric Greek: καμπύλος adj bent, curved LRC
Greek: ἀνακάμπτω vb to return LRC
kampē n.fem bend W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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