Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: kan-   'to sing, chant, sound'

Semantic Field(s): to Sing, Sound (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: canim vb to sing RPN
Old English: hana n.masc cock, rooster ASD/W7
henn n hen W7
Middle English: accent n accent AHD
canticle n canticle W7
Chantecleer prop.n chanticleer in verse narratives W7
chanten vb to chant W7
chanterie n chantry W7
charme n charm W7
dyscant n descant W7
enchanten vb to enchant W7
hen n hen W7
incantacioun n incantation W7
incentive n incentive W7
English: accent n distinctive manner of oral expression AHD/W7
canorous adj melodious, sounding pleasantly AHD/W7
cant n affected singsong speech AHD/W7
cant vb to speak in cant AHD/W7
cantabile adv in singing manner AHD/W7
cantata n choral composition AHD/W7
canticle n song AHD/W7
cantillate vb.trans to recite with improvised musical tones AHD/W7
canto n major division of long poem AHD/W7
cantor n singer, precentor, choir leader AHD/W7
canzone n medieval lyric poem of Italy/Provence AHD/W7
chant vb to sing, make melodic vocal sounds AHD/W7
chanteuse n female (concert/nightclub) singer AHD/W7
chantey n sailor's song (sung in rhythm with work) AHD/W7
chanticleer n cock, rooster AHD/W7
chantry n endowment for chanting of masses AHD/W7
charm n incantation, chanting/reciting of magic spell AHD/W7
descant n melody/counterpoint sung above plainsong of tenor AHD/W7
enchant vb.trans to bewitch, influence by charms/incantation AHD/W7
hen n female chicken, (domestic) fowl AHD/W7
incantation n spells/verbal charms sung/spoken as part of magic ritual AHD/W7
incentive n something tending to incite action/determination AHD/W7
oscine adj passerine AHD/W7
precentor n choral/congregational song leader AHD/W7
recant vb to renounce, withdraw/repudiate formally/publicly AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: haan n cock, rooster LRC
hen n hen LRC
Old Saxon: hano n cock, rooster ASD
Old High German: hano n cock, rooster ASD
German: Hahn n.masc cock, rooster ASD
Henne n hen TLL
Huhn n hen TLL
North Germanic  
Icelandic: hani n cock, rooster ASD
Danish: hane n cock TLL
hen n hen TLL
Swedish: höna n hen TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: hana n cock, rooster RPN
Crimean Gothic: ano n hen, chicken CGo
Umbrian: kanetu vb to chant, play music RPN
Latin: accentus n.masc ascent W7
canō, canere, cecinī, cantum vb to chant, sound, play RPN
canor n.masc melody W7
canorus adj melodious W7
cantata n.fem cantata, sung mass, ecclesiastical chant W7
canticulum n.neut.dim canticle, short song W7
canticum n.neut cant, song W7
cantillo, cantillare, cantillavi, cantillatus vb to cant/chant low W7
cantio, cantionis n.fem cant, song W7
canto, cantāre, cantāvī, cantātus vb to cant, chant W7
cantor n.masc cantor W7
cantus n.masc cant, song W7
carmen, carminis n.neut song W7
incanto, incantare, incantavi, incantatus vb to enchant W7
incentivus adj setting the tune W7
incino, incinere vb to set the tune W7
oscen n.neut bird used in divination W7
praecino, praecinere, praececini, praecentus vb to chant before W7
recanto, recantare vb to cant/chant again W7
Late Latin: cantabilis adj worthy to be chanted W7
incantatio, incantionis n.fem incantation W7
incentivum n.neut incentive W7
incentivus adj stimulating W7
praecentor n.masc choir leader W7
Medieval Latin: discantus n.masc song, descant W7
Portuguese: cantar vb to cant, chant TLL
Spanish: cantar vb to cant, chant TLL
Old French: accent n accent AHD
Chantecler prop.n.masc chanticleer in Roman de Renart W7
charme n.masc charm W7
Old North French: canter vb to cant, sing, tell W7
descant n.masc descant W7
Middle French: accent n.masc accent W7
chanter vb to chant W7
chanterie n.fem chanting W7
enchanter vb to enchant W7
incantation n.fem incantation W7
French: chanter vb to chant W7
chanteur n.masc cantor, male singer W7
chanteuse n.fem chanteuse W7
Italian: cantabile adj singable, song-like W7
cantare vb to cant, chant TLL
cantata n.fem cantata, sung High Mass W7
canto n.masc cant, song, singing W7
canzone n.fem song, ballad, canzone W7
Latvian: kokle n.fem traditional musical instrument LRC
skanīga adj sonorous LRC
Greek: καναχή n.fem sharp sound, ring/clang of metal RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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