Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. kar-, karə-   'to glorify, praise aloud'

Semantic Field(s): Fame, Glory, Praise (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: brēme, brȳme adj famous, renowned, glorious ASD
hrēþ n glory W7
Northumbrian: brōeme adj famous, renowned, glorious ASD
Middle English: brem(e) adj glorious, passionate; wild, fierce, violent MEV
brem(e)ly adv fiercely, violently, exceedingly MEV
English: caduceus n symbolic staff of herald AHD/W7
kerygma n apostolic preaching: Jesus is Christ AHD/W7
rummer n large tall drinking glass AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: roemer n rummer W7
German: Römer n rummer W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hróðr(s) n.masc praise, encomium LRC
Icelandic: hróðr n praise, fame ASD
Latin: caduceus n.masc herald's staff W7
Greek: karyx n.masc herald W7
kērygma n.neut announcement, proclamation W7
kēryx n.masc herald W7
kēryssein vb to proclaim W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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