Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. kel-   'to drive, compel, accelerate, move quickly'

Semantic Field(s): to Drive


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: behealdan, bihealdan vb to hold, behold ASD/W7
geheald, gehæld n keeping, custody, protection ASD/RPN
h(e)aldan, hēold, hēoldon, healden vb.str.VII to hold, retain, preserve ASD
Middle English: beholden vb to keep, behold W7
celerite n celerity W7
holden vb to hold W7
English: accelerate vb to bring about at earlier point in time AHD/W7
avast vb.imp stop, cease, hold fast AHD/W7
behold, beheld vb.str to see, perceive via sight/apprehension AHD/W7
celebrate vb to perform (sacrament/solemn ceremony) publicly with rites AHD/W7
celebrity n state of being famous/celebrated AHD/W7
celerity n swiftness, rapidity of motion AHD/W7
clonus n alternating muscle contractions/relaxations in some nervous diseases AHD/W7
halt n stop AHD/W7
halt vb to stop, cease moving W7
hold, held vb.str to retain, control, possess AHD/W7
uphold, upheld vb.str to give support, keep elevated W7
upholster vb to furnish with upholstery W7
upholsterer n one who upholsters AHD
upholstery n materials used to make soft covering W7
withhold, withheld vb.str to retain, restrain, hold back W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: halda vb to hold, guard RPN
Middle Dutch: houden n to hold AHD
Old Saxon: haldan vb to hold, guard RPN
Old High German: haltan vb to hold, guard RPN
Middle High German: halten vb to hold W7
German: halten vb to halt; hold, keep, detain W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: halda vb to hold, keep, last LRC
Old Icelandic: hald n hold, upkeep, support RPN
Icelandic: halda vb to hold ASD
Danish: holde vb to hold TLL
Old Swedish: halla vb to hold RPN
Swedish: hålla vb to hold LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: haldan vb to hold, tend, take care of RPN
Latin: accelero, accelerare, acceleravi, acceleratus vb to hasten, quicken W7
celeber, celebris adj famous, much frequented W7
celebro, celebrare, celebravi, celebratus vb to affame, frequent, celebrate W7
celer, celeris, celere adj fast, swift, rapid W7
celeritas, celeritatis n.fem celerity W7
New Latin: clonus n.masc agitation W7
Middle French: célérité n.fem celerity W7
Greek: klonos n.masc agitation W7
χρόνος n.masc time LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VII=class 7
fem=feminine (gender)
imp=imperative (mood)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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