Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 6. kel-, k(e)lē-, k(e)lā-, or kl̥̄-?   'to call, cry'

Semantic Field(s): to Call, Summon


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: geholian vb to obtain W7
hlimman, hlamm, hlumon, hlummen vb.str.III to roar, resound LRC
hlōwan vb.str to low ASD/W7
Middle English: calender n calendar W7
claimen vb to claim W7
clamor n clamor W7
clere adj clear W7
counceil n council W7
declamen vb to declaim W7
declaren vb to declare W7
gleyre n egg white W7
halen vb to hale W7
halier n halyard W7
kalendes calends W7
loowen vb to low W7
Paraclit prop.n Paraclete, Holy Spirit W7
proclamen vb to proclaim W7
reclamen vb to reclaim W7
reconcilen vb to reconcile W7
English: acclaim vb to praise, applaud AHD/W7
calendar n system for fixing/arranging days/weeks/months of civil year AHD/W7
calends n beginning of ancient Roman month, with days counted backward to ides AHD/W7
claim n demand for something due W7
claim vb.trans to ask for (as right) AHD/W7
clamant adj blatant, clamorous AHD/W7
clamor n noisy shouting AHD/W7
class n group sharing same social/economic status AHD/W7
clear adj bright, luminous AHD/W7
conciliate vb.trans to gain (e.g. goodwill) by pleasing AHD/W7
council n meeting/assembly for advice/discussion/consultation AHD/W7
declaim vb to speak rhetorically AHD/W7
declare vb to make clear AHD/W7
ecclesia n church AHD
eclair n oblong cream puff with custard/whipped cream filling AHD/W7
exclaim vb to speak/cry out in strong/sudden emotion AHD/W7
glair n (size made from) egg white AHD/W7
hale vb.trans to haul AHD/W7
halyard n rope/tackle for hoisting/lowering AHD/W7
haul vb to pull/draw with force/violence AHD/OED/W7
intercalate vb.trans to insert (e.g. day) in calendar AHD/W7
keelhaul vb.trans to haul under ship's keel as torture/punishment AHD/W7
low vb.intrans to moo AHD/W7
nomenclator n book containing lists/collections of words AHD/W7
Paraclete prop.n helper, supporter AHD/W7
proclaim vb.trans to announce, declare publicly via speech/writing AHD/W7
quitclaim n transfer of claim/right/title AHD
reclaim vb.trans to reform, recall from wrong/improper conduct AHD/W7
reconcile vb.trans to restore to harmony/friendship/communion AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: halen vb to haul W7
Dutch: halen vb to haul W7
kielhalen vb to keelhaul W7
Old High German: halōn vb to call, fetch RPN
hloen vb to low W7
hlōon vb to low ASD
Middle High German: hëllen vb to resound RPN
German: hallen vb to resound LRC
Kielholen vb to keelhaul LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hjaldr n.masc battle LRC
Old Icelandic: hjala vb to talk, chatter RPN
Icelandic: hlōa vb to roar ASD
Latin: acclamo, acclamāre vb to acclaim W7
calendae calends W7
calo, calare, calavi, calatus vb to call, summon RPN
clāmo, clāmare vb to call, shout, cry out RPN
clamor, clamoris n.masc shout, loud noise LRC
claro, clarare vb to make clear W7
clarus adj clear, famous W7
classis n.fem group called to arms, fleet W7
concilio, conciliare, conciliavi, conciliatus vb to unite, assemble, conciliate W7
concilium n.neut assembly, council W7
dēclāro, dēclārare vb to declare, make clear W7
exclamo, exclamare vb to exclaim W7
intercalo, intercalare, intercalavi, intercalatus vb to intercalate W7
kalendae calends, a day in the Roman calendar W7
kalendarium n.neut moneylender's account book W7
nomenclator n.masc caller W7
proclamo, proclamare vb to proclaim W7
reclamo, reclamare vb to cry out against W7
reconcilio, reconciliare vb to repair, reconcile W7
Vulgar Latin: claria n.fem glair W7
Late Latin: ecclesia n church W7
Paracletus n.masc Paraclete W7
Medieval Latin: kalendarium n.neut calendar W7
Portuguese: claro adj clear TLL
Spanish: claro adj clear TLL
Old French: clamer vb to claim W7
cler adj clear W7
concile n.masc council W7
reclamer vb to call back, to claim back W7
Anglo-French: calender n.masc calendar W7
Middle French: clamour n.fem loud noise W7
declarer vb to declare W7
exclamer vb to exclaim W7
glaire n.fem egg white W7
haler vb to haul, pull W7
Paraclet n.masc Paraclete W7
proclamer vb to proclaim W7
réconcilier vb to reconcile W7
French: clair adj clear TLL
classe n.fem class W7
éclair n.masc lightning W7
Italian: chiaro adj clear TLL
Lithuanian: kalbà n language RPN
Latvian: kal’uôt vb to chatter RPN
Greek: ἀνακαλέω vb to designate LRC
ekklēsia n assembly of citizens W7
ἐπίκλησις n.fem name, title LRC
καλέω vb to call, summon LRC
κέλαδος n noise RPN
κολέω vb to call, to summon RPN
parakalein vb to comfort W7
Paraklētos n.masc Paraclete W7
Late Greek: ekklēsia n church W7
Hittite: kalgalinai- vb to clang, clash RPN
kalleš-, kalliš- vb to evoke, summon RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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