Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: kēl-, kōl-, kəl-   'to deceive, dumbfound, enthrall'

Semantic Field(s): Deceit


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hōl n.neut slander, calumny, vain/evil speech W7/ASD
hōlian vb to slander, calumniate, speak evil of ASD
Middle English: chalengen vb to accuse, challenge W7
English: calumniate vb to slander, accuse falsely W7
calumny n malicious uttering of misrepresentations/false charges AHD/W7
cavil vb to raise trivial/frivolous objection AHD/W7
challenge vb to require, demand as right AHD/W7
North Germanic  
Icelandic: hōl n boasting, flattery ASD
Latin: calumnia n.fem calumny W7
calumnior, calumniari vb.dep to calumniate W7
calvor, calvī vb.dep to deceive W7
cavilla n.fem raillery W7
cavillor, cavillari vb.dep to jest, cavil W7
Old French: chalengier vb to calumniate W7
Middle French: calomnie n.fem calumny W7
Greek: kēlein vb to beguile W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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