Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. k̑el-   'cold; warm, caloric'

Semantic Field(s): Cold, Frigid, Hot, Warm


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hlēo-mǣg n.masc lit. protector-kinsman LRC
hlēo(w) n.neut lee ASD/W7
Middle English: caudel n caudle W7
cauderon, caldron n cauldron W7
lee n lee W7
luke adj lukewarm W7
lukewarm adj lukewarm W7
scalden vb to scald W7
English: calenture n tropical fever caused by heat exposure AHD/W7
caloreceptor n heat-sensitive sensor AHD
caloric adj re: (generating) heat AHD/W7
calorie n measure of heat AHD/W7
calorific adj caloric AHD/W7
calorimeter n apparatus for measuring heat AHD/W7
calorimetry n measuring heat AHD/W7
caudle n drink for invalids AHD/W7
ca(u)ldron n large kettle/boiler AHD/W7
chafe vb to warm AHD/W7
chauffeur n person employed to drive motor vehicle AHD/W7
chowder n thick soup/stew of seafood (e.g. clams) AHD/W7
decalescence n reduced temperature increase due to phase change AHD
incalescent adj white, glowing, luminous with heat AHD/W7
lee n protective shelter AHD/W7
lukewarm adj tepid, moderately warm AHD/W7
nonchalant adj apparently unconcerned/indifferent AHD/W7
recalescence n increase in metal temperature caused by phase change AHD/W7
rechauffe n warmed-over food AHD
scald vb to burn with steam/hot liquid AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hlī n lee ASD
Old Saxon: hleo n lee ASD
Old High German: lāo adj lukewarm W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hæll n.masc heel LRC
Icelandic: hlē n.neut lee, protected cove ASD
hlȳ n warmth ASD
hlȳja vb to shelter ASD
hlȳr adj warm ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: hlija n lee, tent ASD
Latin: calda n.fem warm water W7
caldārius, caldāria, caldārium adj re: warm(ing) water CLD
cal(e)faciō, calefacere vb to chafe, make hot TLL
caleo, calēre vb to be warm W7
calesco, calescere vb to become warm W7
calidus adj warm W7
calor n.masc heat W7
calorificus adj that brings warmth W7
recalesco, recalescere vb to grow warm again W7
Late Latin: caldaria n.fem cauldron, warm bath W7
excaldo, excaldāre vb to wash in warm water W7
Spanish: calentar vb to heat W7
calentura n.fem fever (pustule) Sal/W7
escaldar vb to scald TLL
Old French: chaloir vb to concern W7
nonchalant adj nonchalant W7
nonchaloir vb to disregard W7
Old North French: caudel n.masc mixed drink W7
cauderon n.dim cauldron W7
caudiere n warm bath W7
caut adj warm W7
escalder vb to wash in warm water W7
Middle French: chaufer vb to heat W7
French: calorie n.fem calorie W7
calorique adj caloric W7
chaudière n.fem bucket W7
chauffer vb to chafe, heat W7
chauffeur n.masc vehicle driver W7
échauffer vb to overheat TLL
nonchalant adj relaxed, casual, nonchalant W7
réchauffé n rechauffe W7
Lithuanian: šáltas, šaltà adj cold LRC
šil̃tas, šiltà adj warm LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
Sal=Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española (1996)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at