Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. k̑em-   'to wrap, cover, conceal'

Semantic Field(s): to Wind, Wrap, to Cover, to Hide, Conceal


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: feðer-hama, feðer-homa n.wk.masc wings, plumage, feather-coat ASD
flǣsc-hama, flǣsc-homa n.wk.masc body, carcass, lit. flesh-coat ASD
grǣg-hama adj/n.wk.masc gray-coated (one, i.e. wolf) ASD
hama, homa n.wk.masc hame ASD
hamor n hammer W7
hemeþe n hame: shirt GED
he(o)fon, heofen, heofun n.str.masc heaven ASD
heofon-cund adj heavenly GED
heofon-rīce n.neut kingdom of heaven LRC
scand n.masc/fem disgrace, infamous man/woman ODE
sceamian vb.wk to shame, feel shame, be ashamed ASD/ODE
sc(e)amu n.fem shame, confusion; modesty, bashfulness ASD/ODE/W7
Middle English: chemise n shirt, chemise W7
hame n hame OED
hamer n hammer W7
heven n heaven W7
scant adj scant W7
shame n shame W7
English: chemise n woman's one-piece undergarment W7
Gimli prop.n dwarf in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Greyhame prop.n epithet for Gandalf in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Háma prop.n personal name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hame n covering: skin, rind, membrane; shirt, garment OED
hammer n handle with solid head used for pounding AHD/W7
heaven n firmament, dome-like expanse of sky over earth AHD/W7
scant adj chary, meager, not full/large/plentiful W2I
shame n disgrace, dishonor, painful emotion re: guilt TLL/W7
shame vb.trans to disgrace, bring shame to W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hama n hame GED
hemethe n hame: shirt GED
himel-rīk n kingdom of heaven ASD
himul, himel n.str.masc heaven ASD/GED
skame, skome n shame ODE
Dutch: hemd n hame: vest TLL
hemel n.str.masc heaven GED
Old Saxon: hamo n hame GED
heƀan n.str.masc heaven GED
heƀan-rīki n kingdom of heaven ASD
himil n.str.masc heaven GED
himil-rīki n kingdom of heaven ASD
skama n shame ODE
Low German: hǣwen n.str.masc heaven GED
Old High German: hamar n hammer W7
hamo n hame GED
hemidi n.str.neut hame: shirt GED
himel-chunni n.str.neut heavenly race GED
himil n.str.masc heaven GED
himil-rīchi n kingdom of heaven ASD
scama n shame W7
scanda n disgrace ODE
scant adj scant; ashamed ODE
German: Hammer n.masc hammer LRC
Hemd n.neut hame: shirt LRC
Himmel n.masc heaven ASD
Himmelreich n.neut kingdom of heaven ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: gimill, himill, himinn n.masc heaven ICE/IEW
Gimli prop.n.dat heavenly abode (Voluspa locale) ICE
hamr n.masc hame ICE
skǫmm n.fem shame ODE
ulfa-hamr n.masc wolf-hame LRC
Old Icelandic: hamast vb.wk to assume animal shape, rage (like a berserk) GED
hams n.masc hame GED
himinn n.str.masc heaven GED
Icelandic: hifinn, himinn n heaven ASD
himin-rīki n kingdom of heaven ASD
Danish: himmel n heaven GED
himme-rige n kingdom of heaven ASD
Swedish: himmel n heaven GED
skam n shame TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: af-hamon vb.wk.II to get undressed GED
ana-hamon vb.wk.II to get dressed GED
*and-hamon vb.wk.II to undress GED
ga-hamon vb.wk.II to get dressed GED
*himina-kunds adj heavenly GED
himins n.str.masc heaven LRC
skanda n disgrace ODE
ufar-hamon vb.wk.II to don, put on GED
Late Latin: camisia n shirt, chemise W7
Portuguese: camisa n shirt, chemise TLL
Spanish: camisa n shirt, chemise TLL
Old French: chemise n shirt, chemise TLL
French: chemise n shirt, chemise TLL
Italian: camicia n shirt, chemise TLL
Greek: akmē n.fem point W7
Hittite: kammara- n cloud, smoke, vapor GED
Sanskrit: śāmulyàm n bridal garment GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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