Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. k̑er-, k̑erə- : k̑rā-, k̑erei-, k̑ereu-   'horn, head, upper part of body'

Semantic Field(s): Horn, Head


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: corn n drinking-horn GED
Breton: corn n drinking-horn GED
karn n hoof of unicorn GED
Cornish: carow n deer GED
corn n drinking-horn GED
karn n hoof of unicorn GED
Welsh: carw n deer GED
corn n drinking-horn GED
karn n hoof of unicorn GED
Gaulish: *carnon n horn; trumpet GED
carnuātus adj horned GED
Old English: ān-horn(a) n.wk.masc unicorn, lit. one-horn GED
heor(o)t n.masc hart, stag ASD/RPN
horn n.str.neut horn RPN
hyrne n.fem horn, angle, corner ASD
hyrnet(u) n.fem hornet ASD/W7
Middle English: Capricorne prop.n Capricorn W7
cerastes n cerastes W7
corne n corn W7
corner n corner W7
cornet n cornet W7
hernet n hornet W7
hert n hart W7
horn n horn W7
Monoceros prop.n Monoceros AHD
rinoceros n rhinoceros W7
unicorne n unicorn W7
English: alpenhorn n straight wooden Swiss horn 7-15 feet long AHD/W7
althorn n alto member of saxhorn family AHD/W7
bicornuate adj re: 2 horns/horn-shaped processes AHD/W7
Capricorn prop.n southern zodiacal constellation LRC
carat n unit of weight (for gold/jewels) AHD/CDC
carotene n orange/red crystalline hydrocarbon pigment AHD/W7
carotid adj re: chief artery (pair) through neck to head AHD/W7
carrot n biennial herb/root vegetable AHD/W7
cerastes n venomous viper AHD/W7
ceratopsian n herbivorous ornithischian dinosaur AHD
cerebellum n large dorsal part of brain AHD/W7
cerebrum n brain, encephalon AHD/CDC
cervine adj re: deer AHD/W7
cervix n neck AHD/W7
cheer n joy, gaiety, lightness of mood/spirits AHD
chelicera n anterior arachnid appendage AHD/W7
corn n local hardening/thickening of epidermis AHD/W7
cornea n transparent part of eyeball covering iris/pupil AHD/W7
corneous adj horny AHD/W7
corner n angle, point where lines/edges/sides meet AHD/W7
cornet n valved brass wind instrument resembling trumpet AHD/W7
corniculate adj re: small horn-shaped processes AHD/W7
cornification n conversion of body cells into hair/nails/feathers AHD
cornu n horn, part/structure resembling horn AHD
corydalis n herb of fumitory family AHD/W7
corymb n flat-topped inflorescence AHD/W7
corynebacterium n rod-shaped bacterium AHD
coryphaeus n chorus leader AHD/W7
cranium n skull AHD/W7
criosphinx n sphinx with ram's head AHD
flugelhorn n bugle with valves AHD
hart n stag, male red deer AHD/W7
hartebeest n large African antelope AHD
Horn prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
horn n bony process on upper part of head; instrument made thereof AHD/W7
hornbeam n (type of) hardwood tree AHD
hornblende n amphibolic mineral in igneous rock AHD
Hornburg prop.n Rohan fortress in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hornet n large social wasp AHD/W7
hornfels n fine-grained metamorphic rock AHD
Hornrock prop.n Hornburg site in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
keratin n tough insoluble protein in horn (etc.) AHD
lamellicorn adj re: antennae ending in flat plates AHD/W7
longhorn n Texas cattle breed LRC
longicorn adj re: long-horned beetles AHD/W7
migraine n recurrent severe headache AHD/W7
Monoceros prop.n Unicorn (northern constellation) AHD
olecranon n process of ulna projecting behind elbow joint AHD/W7
Redhorn prop.n Misty Mountains peak in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
rhinoceros n thick-skinned herbivorous perissodactyl mammal AHD/W7
rinderpest n acute infectious febrile cattle disease AHD/W7
saveloy n ready-cooked dry sausage AHD/W7
serval n long-legged African wildcat AHD/W7
Starkhorn prop.n Rohan mountain in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
tarboosh n brimless felt cap with silk tassel AHD
Thrihyrne prop.n Helm's Deep mountain in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
triceratops n herbivorous dinosaur of Cretaceous Period AHD
tricorn adj re: 3 horns/corners AHD/W7
unicorn n fabulous animal depicted with single horn in forehead AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: herne n horn, corner, angle ASD
horn n.str.neut horn GED
Middle Dutch: hertebeest n hartebeest, lit. horn-beast AHD
Dutch: hersen n brain; crown, top of head GED/IEW
hoorn n horn TLL
Afrikaans: hartebeest n.obs hartebeest AHD
Old Saxon: hirot n hart GED
hōh-hurnid adj having large horns GED
horn n.str.neut horn RPN
Old High German: althorn n althorn AHD
ein-hurno n.wk.masc unicorn, lit. one-horn GED
hirni n.str.neut brain GED
hiruz n.str.masc hart GED
horn n.str.neut horn RPN
hornaz, hornuz n hornet ASD/W7
hrind n.neut ox AHD
hurnen vb.wk to equip with horns GED
Middle High German: althorn n althorn AHD
German: Alpenhorn n.neut alpenhorn W7
Althorn n.neut althorn W7
Einhorn n.neut unicorn LRC
Flügelhorn n.neut trumpet, flugelhorn LRC
Gehirn n.neut brain(s); sense TLL
Hirn n.neut brain LRC
Hirsch n hart ASD
Horn n.neut horn W7
Horniss n hornet ASD
Karotte n carrot TLL
Rind n.neut ox, cow W7
Rinderpest n.fem rinderpest W7
North Germanic  
Runic: horna horn GED
Old Norse: horn n.neut horn; drinking horn; corner LRC
hyrna n beak; corner of axe KNW
Old Icelandic: hjarni n.masc brain RPN
hjarsi n.masc crown, top of head RPN
hjörtr n hart, stag RPN
horn n.str.neut horn GED
Icelandic: hjörtr n hart ASD
hyra n horn/point (of ax-head), mountain peak ASD
Danish: hjerne n brain TLL
hjørne n corner TLL
horn n horn TLL
Swedish: hjärna n brain TLL
horn n horn TLL
hörn n angle, corner SAO/TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: haurn n.neut horn RPN
*haurnja n flute (horn) player GED
*haurnjan vb to blow/sound a horn GED
þut-haurn n.neut trumpet GED
Latin: Capricornus prop.n.masc Capricorn, lit. Goat-horn W7
cerebellum n.neut part of brain W7
cerebrum n.neut brain RPN
cervical, cervicalis n.neut pillow LRC
cervinus adj of a deer W7
cervix, cervicis n.neut neck W7
cervus n.masc deer, stag RPN
cornea n.fem cornea W7
corneus adj horny W7
corniculatus adj corniculate W7
corniculum n.neut small horn W7
cornū n.neut horn RPN
corymbus n.masc cluster of fruit/flowers W7
coryphaeus n.masc coryphee W7
crabro n.masc hornet W7
rhinoceros, rhinocerotos n.masc rhinoceros W7
tricornis adj with three horns W7
unicornis adj with one horn W7
Late Latin: carota n.fem carrot W7
hemicrania n.fem pain in one side of the head W7
unicornis adj unicorn, that has only one horn W7
Medieval Latin: cranium n.neut cranium, skull W7
New Latin: chelicera n.fem one of the anterior horns of arachnids W7
corydalis n.fem a genus of herbs W7
Old French: corne n.fem horn W7
cornere vb to blow a horn W7
unicorne n.masc/fem unicorn W7
Middle French: carotte n.fem carrot W7
corne n.fem horn, corner W7
cornet n.masc cornet W7
French: carotide n.fem carotid, artery W7
cervelas n.masc a type of sausage R1/W7
chélicère n.fem cephalic appendice of the arachnids and limules R1/W7
corymbe n.masc type of inflorescence R1/W7
migraine n.fem headache W7
serval n.masc small feline African animal W7
Old Prussian: curwis n ox GED
sirwis n deer GED
Lithuanian: kárvė n cow GED
Latvian: sirnas deer GED
Old Church Slavonic: krava n cow GED
srьna n horn GED
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: κάρνυξ n trumpet GED
Ionic: κάρη n.neut head; top part RPN
Attic: κάρᾱ n.neut head; top part RPN
Greek: hēmikrania n.fem pain in one side of the head W7
κάρνον n horn; trumpet GED
karoun vb to stupefy W7
karōtides carotid arteries W7
karōton n.neut carrot W7
κεραός adj horned RPN
κέρας n.neut head, animal's horn RPN
kerastēs adj horned W7
κερα(Ϝ)ός adj horned GED
korydallis n.fem crested lark W7
κόρυδος n crested lark GED
korymbos n.masc cluster of fruit/flowers W7
koryphaios n.masc coryphaeus W7
κορυφή n.fem summit RPN
κρᾱνίον n.neut skull, upper part of head RPN
κριός n.masc ram LS
rhinokerōs, rhinokerōtos n.masc rhinoceros W7
chēlē n.fem claw W7
ōlekranon n.neut elbow W7
Hittite: karau̯ar n horn GED
Armenian: sar n top, peak, summit RPN
Persian: sar n head AHD
sarpūsh n headdress, tarboosh AHD
Avestan: sarah- n head GED
srū-, sr̥vā n horn, nail GED
Sanskrit: śíras- n.neut head, skull RPN
śīrṣá-ḥ n head, skull; top, upper part RPN
śīrṣán- n head RPN
śŕ̥ṅga-m n.neut horn, tusk; peak, point RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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