Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: k̑erdho-, k̑erdhā   'line, row, herd'

Semantic Field(s): Line, Crowd, Multitude


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Welsh: cordd n crowd GED
Old English: heord n.str.fem herd GED
hi(e)rde, heorde, hyrde n.str.masc shepherd, herdsman ASD/GED
scēaphyrde n.str.masc shepherd GED/W7
Middle English: herd n herd W7
sheepherde n shepherd W7
English: herd n animals of one kind (together) AHD/W7
herd vb to move/assemble in herd W7
herdsman n livestock tender/breeder/manager W7
shepherd n one who tends/guards sheep W7
tree-herd n Ent description in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Low Franconian: herda n.str.fem herd GED
Old Saxon: hirdi n.str.masc shepherd GED
Old High German: herta n.str.fem herd GED
hirti n.str.masc shepherd GED
German: Herde n.fem herd, flock LRC
Hirte n shepherd ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hjǫrð n.str.fem herd, flock LRC
Old Icelandic: hirðir n.str.masc shepherd GED
Icelandic: hirðir n shepherd ASD
hjörð n herd ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: hairda n.str.fem herd LRC
hairdeis n.str.masc herdsman LRC
Old Prussian: kērdan n time GED
Lithuanian: (s)ker̃dzius n senior shepherd GED
Old Church Slavonic: črěda n herd, series, daily order GED
Greek: κόρθυς n.fem sheaf, heap (of wheat) GED
Avestan: sarəða- n type, kind GED
Sanskrit: śardha- n crowd; might GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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