Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: k̑ered- : k̑erd-, k̑ērd-, k̑r̥d-, k̑red-   'heart'

Semantic Field(s): Heart


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: cretim vb to believe LRC
cride n heart RPN
Cornish: créz n middle RPN
Welsh: craidd n heart; center RPN
Old English: hēah-heort adj proud GED
heorte n.wk.fem heart LRC
Middle English: accord n chord, accord W7
accorden vb to accord W7
concord n concord W7
corage n courage W7
cordial adj cordial W7
credence n credence W7
credible adj credible W7
credo n credo W7
discorden vb to discord W7
granten vb to grant W7
hert n heart W7
miscreaunt n miscreant W7
querre n the guts of the hunted game that the dogs ate W7
recorden vb to record, lit. to recall W7
recreant adj recreant W7
English: accord n agreement, conformity AHD/W7
accord vb to reconcile, bring into agreement AHD/W7
cardia n heart AHD/CDC
cardiac adj re: heart AHD/W7
cardi(o)- pfx heart AHD/W7
cardiomegaly n abnormal heart enlargement AHD
concord n harmony, state of agreement AHD/W7
cordate adj heart-shaped AHD/W7
cordial adj vital, re: heart AHD/W7
cordiform adj heart-shaped AHD/W7
courage n mental/moral strength to withstand fear/danger/difficulty AHD/W7
credence n belief, mental acceptance AHD/W7
credible adj capable of being believed AHD/W7
credit n account balance in one's favor AHD/W7
credit vb.trans to supply goods pending payment AHD/W7
credo n creed, belief AHD/W7
credulous adj ready/eager to believe AHD/W7
creed n (brief statement of) religious belief LRC
discord vb.intrans to clash, disagree AHD/W7
endocardium n thin serous membrane lining heart cavities AHD/W7
epicardium n visceral part of pericardium AHD/W7
grant vb.trans to allow/bring about fulfillment of AHD/W7
heart n hollow muscular organ that pumps blood in vertebrate animals AHD/W7
megalocardia n cardiomegaly AHD
miscreant adj heretical, unbelieving AHD/W7
misericord n small projection on bottom of hinged church seat that helps support standing worshiper when seat is turned up AHD/W7
myocardium n middle muscular layer of heart wall AHD/W7
pericardium n conical serous membrane enclosing heart/roots of great blood vessels in vertebrates AHD/W7
quarry n heap of game killed in hunt AHD/W7
record vb to set down in writing AHD/W7
recreant adj cowardly, crying for mercy AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: herte, hirte n.wk heart ASD/GED/RPN
Dutch: hart n heart LRC
Old Saxon: herta n.wk heart GED/RPN
Old High German: herza n.wk heart GED/RPN
hrein-herzi adj pure of heart GED
German: Herz n.neut heart ASD
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: hjarta n.wk heart GED/RPN
hrein-hjartaðr adj pure of heart GED
Icelandic: hjarta n heart ASD
Danish: hjerte n heart LRC
Swedish: hjärta n heart LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: *arma-hairto adj merciful GED
hairto n.wk.neut heart GED
hauh-hairei n.fem pride GED
hauh-hairts adj proud GED
*hrainja-hairts adj pure in heart GED
Latin: cardiacus adj re: heart W7
concordia n.fem peace, agreement W7
concors, concordis adj agreeing W7
cor, cordis n.neut heart LRC
credibilis adj credible W7
creditum n.neut loan, credit, something entrusted to another W7
credo, credere, credidi, creditus vb to trust, entrust, believe W7
credulus adj credulous W7
discordo, discordāre vb to disagree W7
discors, discordis adj discordant, disagreeing W7
misercordia n.fem mercy W7
misereor, misereri vb to be merciful W7
misericors, misericordis adj merciful W7
recordor, recordāri vb.dep to remember W7
Vulgar Latin: accordo, accordāre vb to give, allow W7
credento, credentāre vb to believe W7
Medieval Latin: cordialis adj re: heart W7
credentia n.fem belief W7
misercordia n.fem seat in church W7
New Latin: cordatus adj heart-shaped W7
endocardium n.neut membrane lining heart cavities W7
epicardium n.neut part of heart W7
myocardium n.neut heart wall's middle muscle layer W7
pericardium n.neut conical sac enclosing heart W7
Portuguese: crer vb to believe TLL
Spanish: creer vb to believe TLL
Old French: acorder vb to give, allow, fit together W7
acort n.masc accord, harmony W7
concorde n.fem agreement, peace W7
corage n.masc courage W7
creanter vb to believe W7
cuer n.masc heart W7
discorder vb to discord W7
granter vb to believe W7
recorder vb to recall W7
Middle French: credence n.fem belief; small piece of furniture W7
credit n.masc credit W7
croire vb to believe W7
cuiriee n.fem act of giving something to hounds to devour W7
mescreant adj not trustworthy W7
mescroire vb to disbelieve W7
recreant adj renouncing one's cause W7
recroire vb to renounce one's cause in a trial by battle W7
French: cordiforme adj cordiform W7
croire vb to believe TLL
Old Italian: credenza n.fem Renaissance side board used for valuable plates W7
credito n.masc credit W7
Italian: credere vb to believe TLL
Old Prussian: seyr n heart GED
Lithuanian: šerdìs n heart; marrow GED
širdìs n heart GED
Latvian: ser̃de n heart; marrow GED
sir̃ds n heart GED
Old Church Slavonic: srьdьce n heart GED
srěda n midst, middle, center; Wednesday RPN
Greek: καρδία n.fem heart RPN
kardiakos adj of the heart W7
κῆρ n heart GED
perikardios adj around the heart W7
Hittite: ki-ir, kar-ti-ya-aš n heart RPN
Palaic: ka-a-ar-ti n.dat/ heart RPN
Classical Armenian: sirt n heart LRC
Avestan: zərəd- n heart RPN
zraz-dā- vb to believe LRC
Sanskrit: śrad-dhā́- n faith LRC
hŕ̥d- n heart GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
loc=locative (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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