Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. keu-, keu̯ə-   'to bend'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Breton: komb n coomb IEW
Welsh: cwm(m) n.masc coomb ASD/IEW
Old English: comb, cumb n.masc coomb ASD/IEW
hē(a)h adj high ASD
hīehð(u), hīehþo n height RPN
hof n.neut court, dwelling LRC
hōp n.masc hoop, ring, circle IEW
hōpig adj in hills and hollows (re: waves) ASD/IEW
hype n.masc hip, haunch, upper thigh ASD/IEW
Middle English: combe n coomb LRC
high adj high W7
hip n hip W7
hoblen vb to hobble W7
hoop n hoop W7
Slocombe prop.n Slocum LRC
English: Combe prop.n valley-town in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
coomb, comb(e) n vale, basin, hollow, valley IEW
high adj elevated, raised/extending up W7
hip n leg-body joint at pelvis LRC
hobble vb to limp, be lame/unsteady IEW/W7
hoop n band, circular strip IEW/W7
Howe prop.n (Snowmane's) barrow in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
how(e) n hill, mound, barrow, tumulus ODE
Slocum prop.n surname, lit. Plum Valley LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hāch, hāg adj high ASD/RPN
hof n house, hall, dwelling ASD
Middle Dutch: hoep n hoop, ring W7
Dutch: heup n hip TLL
heuvel n howe TLL
hoep n hoop, ring IEW
kom n.fem coomb, basin ASD
Old Saxon: hof n house, hall, dwelling ASD
hōh adj high RPN
Old High German: chumph n coomb, basin ASD
hof n court, house, hall ASD
hōh adj high RPN
houc n hill RPN
huf n.fem hip, haunch ASD
Middle High German: kumpf n vessel, dry measure ASD
German: erhöhen vb.trans to increase TLL
hoch adj high ASD
Hof n court, house, hall ASD
Höhe n height TLL
Hüfte n.fem hip, haunch ASD
Hügel n howe TLL
Kump(f) n.masc cup, bowl, basin ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: haugr n.masc howe, grave LRC
hof n.neut farm, farmstead; temple LRC
Old Icelandic: hár adj high RPN
Icelandic: hār adj high ASD
hof n temple ASD
huppr n.masc hip, haunch ASD
Faeroese: háur adj high RPN
Norwegian: høg adj high RPN
Danish: hofte n hip TLL
høg adj high RPN
Swedish: höft n hip TLL
hög adj high RPN
East Germanic  
Gothic: hauhei n height RPN
hauhs adj high LRC
hiuhma n heap, multitude RPN
hūhjan vb to heap up, store up RPN
hups n.masc hip, haunch ASD
Old French: combe n coomb ASD
Lithuanian: káugė n large stack of hay RPN
kaukarà n hill RPN
kaũkas n boil, swelling RPN
Greek: κύμβαλον n.neut cymbal LRC
παρακύπτω vb to bend down LRC
Sanskrit: kumbha n.masc pot, jug ASD
Tocharian B: kauc adj/adv high, up, above RPN
Tocharian A: koc adj/adv high, up, above RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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