Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: keu̯əp- : ku̯ēp-, ku̯əp-, kū̆p-, and occasionally keu̯(e)p-, k(e)u̯ep-   'to boil, cook, smoke'

Semantic Field(s): to Boil (trans, to Cook, Smoke (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: concupiscence n concupiscence W7
coveiten vb to covet W7
cupidite n cupidity W7
evaporaten vb to evaporate W7
vapour n vapor W7
English: acapnia n reduced carbon dioxide in blood AHD
concupiscence n ardent desire AHD/W7
covet vb to wish for enviously AHD/W7
Cupid prop.n god of love, son of Venus (Roman mythology) AHD
Cupid prop.n one of Santa's reindeer LRC
cupid n Cupid as naked cherubic boy AHD
cupidity n lust, strong desire AHD/W7
evaporate vb.trans to emit in vapor/invisible minute particles AHD/W7
vapid adj flat, uninteresting, lacking force/briskness/liveliness AHD/W7
vapor n steam/diffuse matter floating in air, impairing transparency AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle High German: verwepfen vb to become moldy W7
Latin: concupisco, concupiscere vb to desire ardently W7
cupiditas, cupiditatis n.fem cupidity LRC
cupidus adj desirous W7
cupiō, cupere, cupīvī, cupītum vb to desire LRC
evaporo, evaporare, evaporavi, evaporatus vb to evaporate W7
vapidus adj vapid, flat-tasting W7
vapor n.masc vapor W7
vappa n.fem vapid wine W7
Late Latin: concupiscentia n.fem concupiscence W7
Old French: coveitié n.fem desire W7
Middle French: concupiscence n.fem concupiscence W7
cupidité n.fem greed, cupidity W7
vapeur n.fem vapor W7
Lithuanian: kvepėti, kvẽpia, kvepėjo vb to smell good LRC
Greek: kapnos n.masc smoke W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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