Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: k̑ēu̯ero-, k̑ōu̯ero-, also sk̑ūro-?   'north (wind)'

Semantic Field(s): North, Wind, Breeze


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: scūr, scēor, scyur n.masc/fem shower ASD
Middle English: scuren vb to scour W7
shour n shower W7
English: scour vb to move about quickly (e.g. in search) AHD/W7
shower n rainfall of short duration AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: skūr n.masc blows in battle GED
Old High German: scūr n.str.masc shower GED
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: skūr n.fem shower GED
Icelandic: skúr n shower ASD
Swedish: skur n shower TLL
skura vb to rush W7
East Germanic  
Gothic: skura n.fem windstorm GED
Latin: caurus, cōrus n.masc northwest wind GED
Lithuanian: šiáurė n north GED
šiaurỹa n north wind GED
Old Church Slavonic: sěverъ n north, north wind GED
Armenian: c̣urt n cold, shower GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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