Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: k̑lei-   'to lean, incline, tip (over)'

Semantic Field(s): to Lie, Recline


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hlǣder, hlæd(d)er, hlæddre n.fem ladder ASD/W7
hlǣnan vb.wk.trans to lean (something) ASD/KEW
hlǣne adj lean, meager KEW
hlǣnian vb.wk to make/become lean ASD
hlǣw, hlāw, hlāu, hlēw n.str.masc mound ASD
hlid n.neut lid ASD/W7
hlinian, hleonian vb.wk to lean ASD/W7
hlið n.neut cliff, hill LRC
Middle English: client n client W7
climat n climate W7
declinen vb to decline W7
inclinen vb to incline W7
ladder n ladder W7
lene adj lean W7
lenen vb to lean W7
lid n lid W7
reclinen vb to recline W7
English: acclimate vb to adapt, become accustomed AHD
acclivity n ascending slope AHD/W7
anaclisis n psychological dependence on others AHD
androclinium n a.k.a. clinandrium AHD
client n vassal, dependent, person under protection AHD/W7
climate n (region of earth having) specified long-term weather AHD/W7
climax n arrangement of phrases/sentences by ascending rhetorical force AHD/W7
-clinal adj.sfx sloping AHD/W7
clinandrium n hollow containing anther in upper part of orchid column AHD
cline n graded series of differences exhibited by group of related organisms AHD/W7
-clinic adj.sfx dipping, inclining AHD/W7
clinic n medical instruction with patients discussed/examined AHD/W7
clisis n process of making/becoming a clitic AHD
clitellum n epidermal region in worm where viscous fluid forms egg cocoon AHD
clitoris n small organ in vulva homologous to penis AHD/W7
decline vb to stray, turn from straight course AHD/W7
declivity n downward inclination AHD/W7
diclinous adj diclinic; unisexual: having only pistils or stamens AHD/CDC
enclitic adj pronounced as part of preceding word AHD/W7
incline vb to bow, bend head/body forward AHD/W7
ladder n structure for climbing: 2 long sidepieces joined by crosswise steps AHD/W7
lean, leant vb.wk to bend/incline/deviate from vertical AHD/W7
lean adj with little/no fat, lacking/deficient in flesh W7
lid n movable cover for opening of hollow structure (e.g. box) AHD/W7
matriclinous adj having maternal hereditary traits AHD
monoclinous adj having stamens/pistils in same flower AHD/W7
pericline n albite occurring in elongated opaque white crystals AHD/W7
proclitic adj pronounced as part of following word AHD/W7
proclivity n inclination/predisposition toward something AHD/W7
recline vb to incline backwards AHD/W7
triclinium n 3-part couch for reclining at meals AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hladder, hleder n ladder ASD
Dutch: leunen vb to lean LRC
leuning n bannister LRC
Old Saxon: hlēwe n grave ASD
hlinon vb to lean ASD
Old High German: hlē, lēo n mound, grave-hill, memorial KDW
hlēo n mound ASD
hlinēn vb to lean W7
hlit n lid, cover W7
hlīta n hill, slope ASD
leinen vb to lean KDW
leitara, hleitar n ladder ASD/W7
German: Lehne n.fem support, backrest LRC
lehnen vb to lean, recline LRC
Leite n hill, slope ASD
Leiter n ladder ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hlaiwa n grave KNW
hlein n leaning-place (e.g. hill, rock) KNW
Icelandic: hlið n gate(way) ASD
hlīð n slope, mountainside ASD
Danish: læne vb to lean LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: hlain(s) n hill KGW
hlaiw n tomb, grave ASD
hlaiwasna n grave, sepulcher ASD
hleiduma adj/n.fem left; left hand/side LRC
*hlija n.masc tent, tabernacle LRC
Latin: acclivis adj ascending W7
acclivitas n.fem ascent W7
cliens, clientis n.masc client LRC
clino, clināre vb to bend, incline W7
clivus n.masc hill, slope W7
declino, declināre vb to decline, inflect, turn aside W7
declivis adj sloping down W7
declivitas, declivitatis n.fem declivity W7
inclino, inclināre vb to incline W7
proclivis adj prone, sloping W7
proclivitas n.fem proclivity W7
reclino, reclinare vb to recline, lean back W7
triclinium n.neut dining room W7
Late Latin: clima, climatis n.neut climate, latitude, inclination W7
-cliticus sfx falling, bending towards W7
encliticus adj enclitic W7
New Latin: -clinus sfx inclined, -clinous W7
clitoris n.fem clitoris W7
monoclinus adj monoclinous W7
procliticus adj proclitic, inclined towards front W7
Middle French: client n.masc client; customer W7
climat n.masc climate W7
decliner vb to decay, decline W7
incliner vb to incline W7
recliner vb to recline W7
French: clinique n.fem medical office W7
Albanian: klimë n.fem climate LRC
Greek: ἀνακλίνω vb to lay down LRC
anaklisis n anaclisis, lit. leaning on/back AHD
enklinesthai vb to lean on W7
enklitikos adj leaning on W7
kleitoris n.fem clitoris W7
klima, klimatos n.neut climate, latitude, inclination W7
klimax n.fem ladder W7
klinein vb to bend W7
klinē n.fem bed W7
klinikē n.fem clinic, medical practice at sickbed W7
klinikos adj re: bed W7
periklinēs adj sloping on all sides W7
triklinion adj dining room with three beds W7
Classical Armenian: leaṙn n mountain LRC
linim vb to be, exist LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KGW=Gerhard Köbler: Gotisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (1989)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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