Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ku̯elp-, ku̯elb- : ku̯l̥p/b- : klup/b-   'to stumble, buckle at the knees; to trot'

Semantic Field(s): to Fall


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hlēapan, hlēop, hlēopon, hlupon, hlēapen vb.str to leap W7/ASD
Middle English: lepen vb to leap W7
loup, lope n leap, lope W7
English: elope vb to run away with lover AHD/W7
interloper n meddler, intruder, encroacher AHD/W7
leap, leapt vb.wk to jump, spring free from the ground AHD/W7
leap n spring, bound, act of jumping AHD/W7
lope n easy natural bounding gait W7
lope vb to go/move/ride at a lope W7
orlop n lowest deck of ship AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hlāpa vb to leap ASD
Middle Dutch: loopen vb to leap, lope AHD
Dutch: loop n course TLL
lopen vb to lope TLL
Old Saxon: a-hlōpan vb to leap ASD
Old High German: hlouf(f)an, hlaufen vb to leap, lope AHD/W7/ASD
German: Lauf n course TLL
laufen vb.str to run, lope ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hlaup n leap W7
hlaupa vb to leap, spring; mount, climb; lope LRC
Icelandic: hlaupa vb to leap, lope ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: us-hlaupan vb to leap up ASD
Anglo-French: aloper vb to elope W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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