Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ku̯elp-   'to curve, vault'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hwealf n.fem vault ASD/W7
Middle English: goulf n gulf W7
whelmen vb to whelm W7
English: colpitis n vaginitis: inflammation of vagina AHD/CDC
colposcope n endoscope for examining vaginal/cervical tissues AHD
colposcopy n medical examination using colposcope AHD
gulf n part of sea/ocean extending into land AHD/W7
whelm vb to turn over, cover/engulf completely AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: walbo n vault W7
German: Gewölbe n.neut vault LRC
Golf n.masc gulf LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: hválf n.neut vault; concavity of shield ASD
Latin: culcita n cushion LRC
Late Latin: colpus n.masc gulf; bosom W7
Middle French: golfe n.masc gulf W7
Italian: golfo n.masc gulf, bay CID/W7
Homeric Greek: κόλπος n.masc bosom LS
Greek: κόλπος n.masc womb, vagina; hollow LS
Sanskrit: kūrcá n bale, bushel LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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