PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes
Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.
Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.
All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.
Pokorny Etymon: ku̯erp-, also ku̯erb- 'to turn, wind'
|Old English:||hwe(a)rf||n.masc||turn, change, exchange||ASD|
|hwearf||adj||turning, veering, shifting||ASD|
|hwearft||n.masc||circle, circuit, revolution||ASD|
|hw(i)erfan, hwearfian||vb.wk||to turn, change, revolve, move about||ASD|
|hwirfan, hwyrfan||vb.wk||to turn, change, revolve, move about||ASD|
|English:||whirl||vb||to turn/curve with force/speed||W7|
|whirligig||n||child's whirling toy||IEW/W7|
|Old Frisian:||hwarf, werf||n||turn, change, exchange||ASD|
|hwerva||vb||to walk, change, return||ASD|
|Old Saxon:||gi-hwerƀian||vb||to turn, change||ASD|
|hwerƀan||vb||to go, wander||ASD|
|Old High German:||hwarba||n||turn, change, exchange||ASD|
|hwarbian||vb||to change, rotate, return||ASD|
|hwerban||vb||to walk, change, return||ASD|
|Old Norse:||hverfa||vb||to turn||LRC|
Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:
Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):
|ASD||=||Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)|
|IEW||=||Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)|
|LRC||=||Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin|
|W7||=||Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)|