Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ku̯erp-, also ku̯erb-   'to turn, wind'

Semantic Field(s): to Turn, to Wind, Wrap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hwe(a)rf n.masc turn, change, exchange ASD
hwearf adj turning, veering, shifting ASD
hwearft n.masc circle, circuit, revolution ASD
hw(i)erfan, hwearfian vb.wk to turn, change, revolve, move about ASD
hwirfan, hwyrfan vb.wk to turn, change, revolve, move about ASD
Middle English: whirlegigg n whirligig W7
whirlen vb to whirl W7
English: whirl vb to turn/curve with force/speed W7
whirligig n child's whirling toy IEW/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hwarf, werf n turn, change, exchange ASD
hwerva vb to walk, change, return ASD
Old Saxon: gi-hwerƀian vb to turn, change ASD
hwerƀan vb to go, wander ASD
Old High German: hwarba n turn, change, exchange ASD
hwarbian vb to change, rotate, return ASD
hwerban vb to walk, change, return ASD
wirbil n whirlwind W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hverfa vb to turn LRC
hvirfla vb to whirl W7
Icelandic: hverfa vb to turn ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: hwairban vb to walk ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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