Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: k̑u̯es-, k̑us-   'to pant, puff, sigh, wheeze'

Semantic Field(s): to Breathe; Breath


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hwǣst n action of blowing W7
Middle English: querele n quarrel, dispute W7
whesen vb to wheeze W7
English: cyst n abnormal closed sac having distinct membrane AHD/W7
quarrel n ground for dispute/complaint AHD/W7
querulous adj captious, habitually complaining AHD/W7
wheeze vb.intrans to breathe with difficulty AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: Zyste n.fem cyst LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hvæsa vb to hiss W7
Latin: querela n.fem complaint W7
queror, queri vb to complain W7
querulus adj complaining W7
New Latin: cystis n.fem cyst, sac, bladder W7
Middle French: querele n.fem complaint W7
Lithuanian: švil̃pti, švil̃pia, švil̃pė vb to whistle LRC
Greek: kystis n.fem bladder W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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