Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ku̯ēt-, ku̯ət- : kū̆t-   'to shake, winnow'

Semantic Field(s): to Shake


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: discussen vb to discuss W7
paste n paste W7
rescuen vb to rescue W7
English: cascara n buckthorn AHD/W7
cask n barrel-shaped vessel (for liquids) AHD/W7
concuss vb.trans to affect with concussion AHD/W7
discuss vb.trans to dispel AHD/W7
pasta n paste in fresh/processed form (e.g. ravioli/spaghetti) AHD/W7
paste n dough containing significant proportion of fat AHD/W7
pastel n paste of ground color AHD/W7
pastis n French licorice-flavored liqueur AHD
pastry n (sweet) baked dough/paste AHD
pâte n paste/plastic material for pottery/porcelain AHD/W7
pâté n meat/fish pie/patty AHD/W7
patisserie n French pastry shop/bakery AHD
patty n little pie AHD/W7
percuss vb.trans to tap sharply AHD/W7
rescue vb.trans to deliver, save, free from evil/danger/confinement AHD/W7
scutch vb.trans to beat (flax/hemp) to separate woody fiber AHD/W7
soukous n rumba-like W African dance music AHD
squash vb to crush, press/beat into pulp/flat mass AHD/W7
succussion n state/action/process of shaking/being shaken AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: Pasta n.fem pasta LRC
Pastell n.neut pastel LRC
North Germanic  
Danish: kasket n cap, hat TLL
Latin: concussus vb.ptc shocked, shaken W7
discutio, discutere, discussi, discussus vb to shatter, disperse W7
excutio, excutere vb to shake out W7
executo, executere vb to beat out W7
percussus vb.ptc struck W7
quassō, quassāre vb.freq to shake violently W7
quatiō, quatere vb to shake, strike W7
succussio, succussionis n.fem running to help W7
succutio, succutere, succussi, sucussus vb to fling up W7
Vulgar Latin: excutico, excuticāre vb to beat out W7
exquasso, exquassāre vb to shake W7
quassico, quassicare vb to shake, break W7
Late Latin: pasta n.fem dough, flour paste W7
pastellus n.masc.dim woad (European herb) W7
Spanish: cascar vb to break W7
cáscara n.fem bark W7
casco n.masc skull, helmet, potsherd W7
Old French: escourre vb to shake out W7
paste n.fem paste, dough W7
pasté n.fem meat pie W7
rescourre vb to free, save, rescue W7
Middle French: casque n.masc helmet W7
esquasser vb to shake W7
paste n.fem paste, dough W7
rescourre n.fem rescue W7
French: casquette n.fem.dim cap, hat, lit. small helmet LRC
pastel adj soft colors W7
pâte n.fem paste, dough W7
pâté n.masc pie (with meat fillings) W7
pâtisserie n.fem pastry, patisserie LRC
Italian: pasta n.fem dough, paste, pasta W7
pastèllo n.masc pastel, colored crayon W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at