Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: kē̆d-, kō̆d-   'to bore, drill, prick, stab'

Semantic Field(s): to Bore, to Press, Knife (tool)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hwæs(s) adj sharp, prickly RPN/ASD
hwæt adj quick, active, bold RPN
hwettan vb.wk to whet; to incite RPN/ASD
Middle English: whetten vb to whet W7
English: triquetrous adj triangular, having three acute angles AHD/W7
triquetrum n wedge-shaped carpal bone AHD
whet vb.trans to sharpen by rubbing against something AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: wetten vb to sharpen RPN
Old Saxon: hwat adj quick, active, bold ASD
Old High German: (h)waz adj sharp, rough, severe RPN
wezzan, wezzen vb to sharpen, whet RPN
German: wetzen vb to whet ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hvass adj sharp, prickly LRC
Old Icelandic: hvetja vb to whet, sharpen RPN
Icelandic: hvass adj sharp ASD
hvatr adj quick, active, bold ASD
hvetja vb to whet, incite ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: ga-ƕatjan vb to sharpen; to incite, entice RPN
hwass-aba adv sharply ASD
Latin: triquetrus adj triquetrous, three-cornered RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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