Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: kei̯ə-, kii̯ē-   'to rest comfortably; quiet, peaceful, tranquil'

Semantic Field(s): Quiet (adj)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hwīl n.fem while, time LRC
Middle English: aquiten vb to acquit W7
coy adj coy W7
quiet adj/n quiet W7
quit(e) adj quit, released W7
quit(t)en vb to quit W7
requiem n requiem W7
while n while W7
whiles conj whiles W7
whilom adv whilom W7
English: acquiesce vb.intrans to accept/comply tacitly/passively AHD/W7
acquit vb.wk.trans to pay off (e.g. claim/debt) AHD/W7
coy adj shy, bashful AHD/W7
quiet adj calm, marked by little/no motion/activity AHD/W7
quiet n tranquility AHD/W7
quit, quit vb to release, relieve, set free AHD/W7
quit adj absolved, released from charge/penalty/obligation AHD/W7
quitclaim n transfer of claim/right/title AHD
quite adv wholly, completely AHD/W7
quitrent n rent paid in lieu of required services AHD
requiem n mass for repose of departed soul(s) AHD/W7
requiescat n prayer for repose of dead person AHD/W7
tranquil adj serene, free from agitation AHD/W7
while n (period of) time AHD/W7
whiles conj.arch while W7
whilom adv formerly AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hwīle n while ASD
Old Saxon: hwīla n while ASD
Old High German: hwīla n time W7
German: weil conj because TLL
Weile n while ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hvílð n.fem rest, pause LRC
Icelandic: hvíla n bed; rest ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: hweila n while ASD
Latin: acquiesco, acquiescere vb to be silent, satisfied W7
quies, quietis n.fem rest, quiet W7
quiesco, quiescere, quievi, quietus vb to rest, be quiet W7
quietus adj quiet, at rest W7
requies n.fem rest W7
requiesco, requiescere vb to rest W7
tranquillus adj calm, tranquil W7
Old French: aquiter vb to acquit W7
quite adj free of debt, released, at rest W7
quitter vb to leave W7
Middle French: coi adj calm W7
quiet adj silent, tranquil W7
quit(t)er vb to leave W7
French: acquiescer vb to approve, acknowledge W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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