Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. kel-, kelə-   'to turn; wheel; neck?'

Semantic Field(s): to Turn, Wheel, Neck


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: cul n wagon LRC
Old English: healsbeorg, healsbeorh n.fem neck armor W7/ASD
hweogol, hwēol n.neut wheel W7/ASD
hweogul, hweowol, hweohl n.neut wheel ASD
Middle English: coler n collar W7
colonie n colony W7
epicicle n epicycle W7
halse n hawse W7
haubergeoun n habergeon W7
hauberk n hauberk W7
pool n pole W7
pouley n pulley W7
wheel n wheel W7
English: accolade n ceremonial embrace AHD/W7
ancillary adj auxiliary, subordinate AHD
aviculture n raising/care of birds, esp. wild birds in captivity AHD/W7
bicycle n vehicle with 2 wheels in tandem AHD/W7
bucolic adj pastoral, re: shepherds/herdsmen AHD/W7
calash n light 4-passenger carriage with small wheels AHD/W7
cha(c)kra n center of spiritual energy (yoga philosophy) AHD
chark(h)a n spinning wheel for cotton AHD/W7
chukker n playing period of polo game AHD/W7
col n pass in mountain range AHD/W7
collar n band/strip/chain worn around neck AHD/W7
collet n metal band/collar/ferrule/flange AHD/W7
colony n people living in new territory (retaining ties with parent state) AHD/W7
-colous adj.sfx living/growing in/on AHD/W7
cullet n broken/refuse glass used to facilitate melting in glass-making AHD/W7
cult n worship, formal religious veneration AHD/W7
cultivate vb.trans to till, prepare and use for crop raising AHD/W7
culture n tillage, cultivation AHD/W7
cycle n time interval during which sequence of events is completed AHD/W7
cycloid n curve generated by point on circumference of circle rolling along straight line AHD/W7
cyclone n wind/storm system rotating around area of low atmospheric pressure AHD/W7
cyclorama n large pictorial representation encircling spectator W7
cyclosis n streaming of protoplasm within cell AHD/W7
decollate vb.trans to behead AHD/W7
decollete adj re: strapless/low-necked dress AHD/W7
encyclical adj general, addressed to all individuals in group AHD/W7
epicycle n path in which planet moves among stars AHD/W7
habergeon n medieval mail jacket (shorter than hauberk) AHD/W7
hauberk n tunic of chain mail AHD/W7
hawse n hole for cable in bow of ship AHD/W7
hemicycle n semi-circular legislative debate chamber TLL
incult adj wild, untilled AHD/W7
inquiline n animal living habitually in nest/abode of another species AHD/W7
kolache, kolacky n sweet bread bun with fruit filling AHD
Kultur prop.n culture, civilization AHD
machicolate vb.trans to provide/furnish machicolation AHD
machicolation n openings for firing upon assailants AHD/W7
mariculture n cultivation of marine organisms AHD
palingenesis n metempsychosis AHD/W7
palinode n ode/song of recant/retraction AHD/W7
pole n extremity of axis of sphere (esp. earth's axis) AHD/W7
pratincole n limicoline bird AHD/W7
pulley n sheave/small wheel with grooved rim for rope/cable AHD/W7
ringhals n spitting cobra AHD
saxicolous adj inhabiting/growing among rocks AHD/W7
silvicolous adj living in woodlands AHD/W7
talisman n object marked to confer supernatural power/protection AHD
teleutospore n teliospore AHD/W7
telic adj purposive, tending toward end AHD/W7
teliospore n final stage in life cycle of rust fungus W7
telium n teliospore-containing sorus/pustule on host plant of rust fungus AHD/W7
telos n end of goal-oriented process AHD
torticollis n twisting of neck resulting in abnormal carriage of head AHD/W7
tricycle n 3-wheeled vehicle LRC
wheel n hard circular frame that rotates on axle AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: hals n neck AHD
Dutch: wiel n wheel RPN
Middle Low German: wēl n wheel RPN
Old High German: hals n neck W7
hals-pirc, hals-perg n gorget, neck armor ASD
German: Hals n.masc neck LRC
Kalesche n.fem calash W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hals n neck, hawse W7
Old Icelandic: hjól n wheel RPN
hvél n wheel RPN
Icelandic: hāls-björg n gorget ASD
hvel, hjól n wheel ASD
Danish: cykle n bicycle TLL
hals n neck TLL
hjul n wheel ASD
Swedish: cykel n bicycle TLL
hals n neck TLL
hjul n wheel ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: hals n neck LRC
Latin: ancilla n.dim.fem handmaid, maid-servant AHD/ELD
anculus n.masc servant AHD
aviscultura n aviculture CDC
bucolicus adj bucolic W7
-cola n.sfx inhabitant W7
collum n.neut neck W7
colō, colere, coluī, cultum vb to till, inhabit, cultivate RPN
colonia n.fem colony W7
colonus, coloni n.masc farmer, settler LRC
colus n distaff RPN
decollo, decollare, decollavi, decollatus vb to behead W7
incola n.masc inhabitant W7
incultus adj unrefined, not cultivated W7
inquilinus n.masc tenant, lodger W7
polus n.masc pole, stake W7
silvicola n.fem inhabitant of a wood W7
Vulgar Latin: accolo, accollāre vb to be a neighbor W7
Late Latin: cyclus n.masc circle W7
encyclicus adj circular, general W7
epicyclus n.masc epicycle W7
Medieval Latin: cultivo, cultivare, cultivavi, cultivatus vb to cultivate W7
cultivus adj cultivable W7
machicolo, machicolare, machicolavi, machicolatus vb to furnish with machicolations W7
New Latin: cyclosis n.fem streaming of protoplasm within cell W7
palingenesis n.fem second birth, in same/different body W7
telium n.neut telium W7
torticollis n.masc stiffness in neck W7
Old French: col n.masc collar, neck W7
coler n.masc collar W7
colet n.masc collar W7
machicoleis n.masc machicolation W7
machicoller vb to machicolate W7
Middle French: col n.masc collar, neck W7
collet n.masc collar, trap W7
colonie n.fem colony W7
hauberc n.masc hauberk W7
haubergeon n.masc.dim habergeon W7
poulie n.fem pulley W7
French: accolade n.fem embrace W7
accoler vb to embrace, stick with W7
bicycle n.masc bicycle W7
bicyclette n.fem bicycle W7
calèche n.fem carriage W7
col n.masc collar, col (of mountain) W7
collet n.masc collar W7
cueillette n.fem act of gathering W7
culte n.masc cult W7
-cycle sfx re: presence of wheels in device W7
cycle n.masc cycle W7
cycloïde adj cycloid, shaped like a circle W7
décolleté n.masc neckline W7
décolleter vb to give low neckline to dress/shirt W7
tricycle n.masc tricycle W7
Lithuanian: kãklas n neck RPN
Latvian: celis n knee LRC
Czech: kolače kolache, wheel-shaped cake AHD
kolesa wheels, carriage W7
Old Church Slavonic: kolač n wheel AHD
koleno n knee LRC
kolo n wheel RPN
Russian: koleso n wheel RPN
Albanian: kulturor adj cultural, re: enlightenment LRC
sjell vb to turn RPN
Homeric Greek: πέλομαι vb to be; to move? RPN
πέλω vb to be; to move? RPN
Greek: ἀνατέλλω vb to rise LRC
boukolikos adj pastoral W7
boukolos n.masc cowherd W7
enkyklios adj circular, general W7
ἐντέλλω vb to command LRC
epikyklos adj coming around W7
ἐχανατέλλω vb to spring up LRC
-kolos afx herd W7
kykloeidēs adj circular W7
κύκλος adj/n.masc round; ring, wheel, circle RPN
kykloun vb to go around W7
κύκλῳ adv around, in a ring/circle RPN
kyklōma n.neut wheel, coil W7
kyklōsis n.fem encirclement W7
πάλιν adv anew, again LRC
palinōidia n.fem palinode W7
πολεύω vb to turn about, go about RPN
πολέω vb to revolve, go about, range over; turn up soil with plow RPN
πόλος n.masc pole, axis; hinge, pivot RPN
συντελέω vb to complete LRC
τέλειον n.neut fulfilled, perfect LRC
τέλειος adj complete, finished, at an end RPN
τελείω vb to fulfill, complete LRC
τελευταῖος adj last RPN
τελευτάω vb to complete, finish, achieve RPN
τελευτέω vb to die, finish LRC
τελευτή n.fem end, completion RPN
τελέως adv at last RPN
τελήεις adj perfect, complete RPN
τέλος n.neut end, fulfillment, completion RPN
Armenian: sjel vb to turn around LRC
Avestan: carāiti vb to go, move RPN
caxra- n wheel RPN
karšu n furrow LRC
Sanskrit: cakrá-ḥ n wheel RPN
calati, cárati vb to move, walk, wander RPN
Pali: cakka- n wheel RPN
Hindi: cakkar n circular course W7
carkha n charkha W7
cāk n millstone, kind of wheel RPN
Tocharian B: klautk- vb to turn, become RPN
klutk- vb to turn RPN
kokale n cart, wagon, chariot RPN
Tocharian A: kukäl n cart, wagon, chariot RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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