Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: kenth-   'to suffer, endure'

Semantic Field(s): Pain, Suffering


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English: allelopathy n plant toxin release slowing other plant growth AHD
apathy n impassiveness, lack of feeling/emotion AHD/W7
idiopathy n idiopathic disease/anomaly AHD/W7
naprapathy n treatment of disease by joint/muscle/ligament manipulation AHD
nepenthe n potion used to dull pain/sorrow AHD/W7
pathetic adj pitiable, evoking pity/sorrow/tenderness AHD/W7
pathos n (experience/artistic representation evoking) pity/compassion AHD/W7
-pathy n.sfx feeling, suffering AHD/W7
sympathy n similar effect (on another) AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: -pathie sfx -pathy LRC
Latin: nepenthes n.neut plant that banishes pain W7
-pathia sfx bearing, suffering W7
sympathia n.fem sympathy W7
Late Latin: patheticus adj pathetic, able to feel W7
Middle French: pathétique adj derisory, melodramatic W7
Lithuanian: kančià n.fem agony, suffering LRC
kesti vb to suffer LD/W7
kėsti, kẽčia, kėtė vb to reach LRC
Greek: apatheia adj apathy W7
apathēs adj without feeling W7
idiopatheia adj idiopathy, particular affection W7
nēpenthes n.neut plant that banishes pain W7
nēpenthēs adj banishing pain and sorrow W7
-patheia sfx suffering, affection W7
-pathēs sfx suffering W7
pathētikos adj pathetic, capable of feeling W7
pathos n.neut suffering, experience W7
πάσχω vb to suffer, experience LRC
πενθέω vb to mourn, lament, bewail LRC
penthos n.neut grief, sorrow W7
sympatheia n.fem sympathy W7
sympathēs adj sympathetic, having common feelings W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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