Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ker-   'to do, make, form'

Semantic Field(s): to Do, Make, to Mold, Form


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English: karma n force generated by person's actions thought to perpetuate transmigration (Hinduism/Buddhism) AHD/W7
peloria n abnormal regularity of structure (in normally irregular flowers) AHD/W7
Prakrit prop.n broad family of ancient Indic languages/dialects LRC
Sanskrit prop.n classical language of ancient India, evolved to modern times LRC
West Germanic  
German: Karma n.neut karma LRC
Lithuanian: kuriù, kùrti vb to make, build, create RPN
Greek: pelōr n.neut monster W7
pelōros adj monstrous W7
teras n.neut marvel, monster W7
Old Persian: kar- vb to do, make, build RPN
Avestan: kərənaoiti vb to do, make RPN
Sanskrit: kará-ḥ vb.ptc doing, making RPN
karóti vb to do, make, build RPN
kárman- n act, deed, work RPN
kṛṇóti vb to do, make, build RPN
kṛtá-ḥ vb.ptc done, made, prepared RPN
kṛtyā́ n act, action, deed RPN
prākṛta adj natural, vulgar W7
saṁskṛta n Sanskrit (ancient Indic language), lit. perfected W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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