Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: laku-   '(water in) lake, pond, ditch, etc.'

Semantic Field(s): Lake, Pond


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: loch n loch W7
Scots Gaelic: loch n.masc loch W7
Old English: lagu, lago n.masc lake, sea, water; (name for) L-rune W7/ASD
lagu-lād n.str.fem water-way, ocean journey LRC
Middle English: lake n lake W7
lough n lough W7
English: laccolith n igneous rock intruded between sedimentary beds AHD/W7
lacuna n gap, blank space/missing part AHD/W7
lagoon n shallow pond/sound/channel near/connected to larger water body AHD/W7
lake n large inland body of still water AHD/W7
Lake-town prop.n a.k.a. Esgaroth in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
loch n lake AHD/W7
lough n lake AHD/W7
Scots English: louch n lake W7
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: lagu n lake, sea, water ASD
lagu-līðandi n seafarer ASD
Old High German: lagu n lake; (name for) L-rune ASD
German: Lagune n.fem lagoon LRC
North Germanic  
Runic: *laguz n lake, water; (name for) L-rune LRC
Icelandic: lögr n.masc lake, sea, water, liquid; (name for) L-rune ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: lagus n lake, sea, water ASD
Latin: lacuna n.fem lack, lacuna W7
lacus, lacūs n.masc lake, pond, cistern, reservoir W7
Old French: lac n.masc lake W7
French: lagon n.masc lagoon W7
lagune n.fem lagoon W7
Italian: laguna n.fem lagoon W7
Greek: λάκκος n.masc lake, pond, pit, reservoir LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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