Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: leg̑-   'to gather, collect'

Semantic Field(s): to Gather, Collect


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: lǣce n.masc leech ASD/W7
Middle English: cateloge n catalog W7
delegat n delegate W7
dialogue n dialogue W7
diligent adj diligent W7
eclog n eclogue W7
elect adj elect W7
epiloge n epilogue W7
genealogie n genealogy W7
horologe n horologe W7
leche n leech W7
lecture n lecture W7
legacie n office of legate, legacy W7
legal adj legal W7
legate n legate W7
legende n legend W7
legible adj legible W7
legion n legion W7
lesson n lesson W7
lettorne n lectern W7
-logie n.sfx -logy W7
logik n logic W7
-logue n.sfx -logue W7
privilege n privilege W7
prolog n prologue W7
sacrilege n sacrilege W7
silogisme n syllogism W7
sortilege n sortilege W7
English: alexia n aphasia involving loss of reading ability AHD/W7
analects n selected miscellaneous written passages AHD/W7
analogous adj re: likeness/sameness/similarity AHD/W7
anthology n collection of literary pieces/passages AHD/W7
apologue n allegorical narrative with moral AHD/W7
apology n defense, formal justification AHD/W7
catalog n list, register AHD/W7
coil vb to wind into rings/spirals AHD/W7
colleague n office/professional associate AHD/W7
collect vb to bring together AHD/W7
collegial adj re: college, group sharing power/authority AHD/CDC
Decalogue prop.n the Ten Commandments AHD
delegate n person acting for another AHD/W7
dialect n regional variety of language AHD/W7
dialectic n intellectual investigation via dialogue W7
dialogue n (written composition with) characters conversing AHD/W7
diligent adj painstaking, characterized by steady/earnest/energetic effort AHD/W7
dyslexia n impaired ability to recognize/comprehend writing AHD
eclectic adj re: selecting best style/method/doctrine AHD/W7
eclogite n coarse-grained metamorphic rock AHD
eclogue n idyll, bucolic, poem with shepherds conversing AHD/W7
ecology n study of interrelationships of organisms/environments AHD/W7
elect adj chosen, carefully selected AHD/W7
election n choice W7
elite n/adj (re:) top cadre, powerful group TLL
epilogue n concluding section rounding out literary work AHD/W7
epistemology n study/theory of nature/grounds of knowledge AHD/W7
etiology n cause, origin AHD/W7
eulogy n high praise, commendatory oration TLL/W9
florilegium n anthology, volume of writings AHD/W7
genealogy n account of descent of person/family/group from ancestors/older forms AHD/W7
homologous adj having same relative value/structure/position AHD/W7
horologe n timekeeping device AHD/W7
horology n science of time measurement AHD/W7
hymnology n hymnody AHD/W7
intelligent adj possessing intelligence AHD/W7
lectern n reading desk AHD/W7
lection n liturgical lesson for particular day AHD/W7
lecture n discourse given to class/audience for instruction AHD/W7
leech n surgeon/physician who used bloodsucking worms AHD/W7
legacy n bequest, gift by will of money/personal property AHD/W7
legal adj re: law AHD/W7
legate n official emissary AHD/W7
legation n diplomatic mission headed by minister W7
legend n story from the past AHD/W7
legendarium n collected body of J.R.R. Tolkien's writings re: Middle-earth LRC
legible adj plain, capable of being read/deciphered AHD/W7
legion n Roman army division: 3000-6000 foot soldiers plus cavalry AHD/W7
legist n specialist in (branch of) law AHD/W7
legitimate adj lawfully begotten AHD/W7
legume n pulse, pea/bean, seed/fruit used for food TLL/W9
leguminous adj re: legume W9
lesson n sacred passage(s) read in worship service AHD/W7
lex n law AHD/W7
lexicon n dictionary, book containing words with definitions AHD/W7
ligneous adj woody, of/resembling wood AHD/W7
logic n canons/criteria of valid inference/reasoning AHD/W7
logion n saying AHD/W7
logistic adj re: logic/logistics AHD
logistics n disposition of personnel/materiel AHD
Logos prop.n reason: principle governing cosmos (Greek philosophy) LRC
-logue n.sfx discourse, talk AHD/W7
-logy n.sfx oral/written expression AHD/W7
loyal adj faithful in allegiance to government AHD/W7
malacology n zoology dealing with mollusks AHD/W7
metrology n science of weights/measures AHD/W7
neglect vb.trans to disregard, give little respect/attention to AHD/W7
neologism n newly-coined word TLL
paralogism n false argument contrary to logic AHD/W7
potamology n scientific study of rivers AHD
prelect vb.intrans to lecture, discourse in public AHD/W7
privilege n right/immunity granted as peculiar favor/benefit/advantage AHD/W7
proctology n medicine dealing with structure/diseases of anus/rectum/sigmoid colon AHD/W7
prolegomenon n prefatory remarks AHD/W7
prologue n preface/introduction (e.g. to play/discourse) AHD/W7
psephology n study of political elections AHD
psychology n science of mental behavior/processes AHD
pteridology n study of ferns AHD
relegate vb.trans to banish, send into exile AHD/W7
sacrilege n theft/violation of something consecrated AHD/W7
select adj chosen by fitness/preference AHD/W7
sortilege n divination by lots AHD/W7
syllogism n deductive scheme of formal argument: major/minor premise and conclusion AHD/W7
technology n technical language AHD/W7
teleology n study of evidence for design in nature AHD/W7
thanatology n study of death/dying AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: le(t)za, leischa n leech ASD
Dutch: legatie n legation TLL
Old High German: lāhhi, lāche n leech W7
German: Liek n.neut leech LRC
-logie sfx -logy W7
Ökologie n ecology W7
North Germanic  
Icelandic: laknari, læknir n leech ASD
Danish: legation n legation TLL
læge n leech ASD
Swedish: legation n legation TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: lēkeis, leikeis n leech ASD
Latin: analogus adj analogous, proportionate W7
apologia n apology AHD
apologus n.masc apologue, narrative, Aesopic fable W7
collēga, collēgae n.masc colleague, one chosen with another W7
colligo, colligere, collegi, collectus vb to bind together W7
conlēga, conlēgae n.masc colleague, one chosen with another W7
delego, delegare, delegavi, delegatus vb to assign, commit, delegate W7
dialectica, dialecticae n.fem logic, dialectic LRC
dialectus adj re: discussion, dialectic W7
dialogus n.masc dialogue, conversation between two people W7
diligens, diligentis adj/vb.ptc zealous, diligent W7
diligo, diligere vb to love, choose, esteem W7
ecloga n.fem eclogue W7
Eclogae Eclogues [title of Vergil's pastorals] W7
electus, electūs n.masc election W7
ēligō, ēlegere, elēgī, elēctum vb to choose, select LRC
epilogus n.masc epilogue W7
florilegus adj culling flowers W7
horologium n.neut clepsydra, solar clock W7
intellegō, intellegere, intellēxī, intellēctum vb to understand LRC
intelligens, intelligentis adj intelligent, understanding W7
lectio n.fem act of reading W7
lector n.masc reader W7
legalis adj of the law W7
legatus n.masc deputy, emissary W7
legendus vb.ger (thing) to be read W7
legio, legionis n.fem legion, army corps W7
legitimus adj legitimate W7
lego, legāre vb to choose, depute, send (as emissary) W7
legō, legere, lēgī, lēctus vb to read W7
legūmen, legūminis n.neut legume TLL
lex, legis n.fem law LRC
ligneus adj wooden W7
lignum n.neut wood W7
-logia sfx study of W7
logica n.fem logic W7
-logus sfx person who studies W7
necglego, neclegere, neclegi, neglectus vb to neglect, abandon W7
neglegenter adv carelessly LRC
praelego, praelegere, praelegi, praelectus vb to choose before W7
privilegium n.neut law for/against private person W7
prologus n.masc prologue: preface to play W7
relego, relegare, relegavi, relegatus vb to relegate W7
religio, religionis n.fem religious practice LRC
sacrilegium n.neut temple robbery W7
sacrilegus n.masc one who steals sacred things W7
seligo, seligere, selegi, selectus vb to select W7
sortilegus adj foretelling W7
syllogismus n.masc syllogism: type of argument W7
Late Latin: apologia n.fem apology, speech in defense W7
catalogus n.masc catalog W7
genealogia n.fem genealogy W7
lectio, lectionis n.fem lesson, reading W7
lectura n.fem reading W7
legibilis adj legible W7
paralogismus n.masc paralogism W7
Medieval Latin: aetiologia n.fem statement of causes W7
lectorinum n.neut lectern W7
legenda legend, things to be read W7
legista n.fem legist W7
legitimō, legitimāre, legitimāvī, legitimātus vb to legitimate W7
sortilegium n.neut spell, sortilege W7
New Latin: alexia n.fem incapacity to read W7
analecta n.fem analects W7
anthologia n.fem collection of epigrams W7
florilegium n.neut anthology W7
lectio, lectionis n.fem liturgical lesson for particular day W7
Malacozoa n.fem soft-bodied animals W7
teleologia n.fem teleology W7
Portuguese: legume n legume, vegetable TLL
Spanish: legumbre n legume, vegetable TLL
Old French: dialogue n.masc conversation between two people W7
leçon n.fem lesson W7
legat n.masc deputy W7
légion n.fem legion, army corps W7
leial, leel adj loyal W7
-logie sfx science of, discourse on W7
-logue sfx one who studies given discipline W7
privilege n.masc privilege W7
prologue n.masc prologue W7
sacrilege n.masc sacrilege W7
Middle French: apologie n.fem apology W7
catalogue n.masc catalog W7
coillir vb to collect W7
collègue n.masc colleague W7
dialecte n.masc dialect W7
diligent adj diligent W7
epilogue n.masc epilogue W7
genealogie n.fem genealogy W7
horloge n.fem clock W7
legacie n.fem office of legate W7
légal adj legal W7
legende n.fem legend W7
legiste adj legist W7
letrun n.masc lectern W7
logique n.fem logic W7
loyal adj loyal, faithful W7
paralogisme n.masc paralogism W7
silogisme n.masc syllogism, type of argument W7
French: apologue n.masc apologue, little fable with moral R1/W7
légume n legume, vegetable TLL
malacologie n.fem malacology, study of mollusks W7
métrologie n.fem metrology, study of ancient measures W7
Italian: legume n legume, vegetable TLL
Greek: aitiologia n.fem statement of causes W7
analegw vb to collect W7
analekta collection, collected things W7
analektos adj verbal W7
analogos adj proportionate W7
anthologein vb to gather flowers AHD
anthologia n.fem flower gathering W7
apologia n.fem apology, speech in defense W7
apologos n apologue AHD
genealogia n.fem genealogy W7
dialegomai vb to converse W7
διάλεκτος n.fem language LRC
dialogos n.masc conversation between two people W7
eklegw vb to select W7
eklektikos adj selection of different things W7
eklogē n.fem eclogue W7
ἐλογίζω vb to think LRC
epilegw vb to say in addition W7
epilogos n.masc epilogue W7
epistamai vb to know, understand W7
epistēmē n.fem knowledge W7
histamai vb to cause to stand W7
katalegw vb to list, enumerate W7
katalogos n.masc catalog W7
λέγω vb to say, speak; gather LRC
λέξις n.fem word, speech; style LRC
logia n.fem collecting; discourse, speech W7
λογίζομαι vb to calculate, think LRC
logizomai vb to calculate W7
logikē n.fem logic W7
logikos adj of reason W7
λόγιον n.neut oracle, announcement LS
λόγος n.masc word, speech, reason LRC
metrologia n.fem theory of ratios W7
homologos adj agreeing W7
paralogismos n.masc paralogism W7
paralogos adj unreasonable W7
prolegomenon n.neut introduction, what is said before W7
προλέγω vb to say beforehand LRC
prologos n.masc prologue, part of Greek play preceding entry of chorus W7
syllogizomai vb to syllogize W7
syllogismos n.masc syllogism, type of argument W7
technologia n.fem systematic treatment of an art W7
hymnologia n.fem study of hymns W7
hōrologion n.neut clepsydra, solar clock W7
Late Greek: lexikon n.neut lexicon, dictionary W7
lexikos adj of words W7
Medieval Greek: anthologia n.fem anthology W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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