Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. lē(i)-   'to weaken, leave behind; feeble'

Semantic Field(s): Weak, Infirm, to Leave, Relinquish


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: forlǣtan, forlēt, forlēton, forlǣten vb.str.VII to leave, forsake, abandon LRC
læt adj late W7
lǣtan, lēt, lēton, lǣten vb.str.VII to let, allow LRC
lætra adj.comp later W7
latost adj.sup last W7
Middle English: alas interj alas W7
allegeaunce n allegiance W7
last adj last W7
late adj late W7
latter adj latter W7
leten vb to let W7
liege adj liege W7
ligeaunce n allegiance AHD
English: alas interj used to express pity/concern/unhappiness AHD/W7
allegiance n obligation of feudal vassal to liege lord AHD/W7
lassitude n fatigue, weariness AHD/W7
last adj following all others AHD/W7
late adj coming/remaining after due/proper/usual time AHD/W7
latter adj later, more recent AHD/W7
lenient adj relieving pain/stress AHD/W7
lenis adj produced with lax articulation/weak expiration AHD/W7
lenitive adj mitigating, alleviating pain/acrimony AHD/W7
let, let vb.str to make, cause to AHD/W7
liege adj having right/obligation to render feudal service/allegiance AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: let adj late, slow ASD
let n serf W7
lēta vb to let, allow ASD
Dutch: laten vb to let TLL
verlaten vb to forsake, let go ASD
Old Saxon: lat adj late, slow ASD
lātan vb to let, allow ASD
Old High German: laz adj slow W7
lāz(z)an vb to let, allow, permit ASD/W7
German: lass adj late, slow ASD
lassen vb to let TLL
verlassen vb.str to quit, leave, forsake, abandon ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: láta vb to let, allow; yield, concede LRC
Icelandic: latr adj late, slow ASD
lāta vb to let, allow ASD
Danish: lade vb to let TLL
Swedish: låta vb to let TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: lats adj slothful ASD
lētan vb to let, allow ASD
Latin: lassitudo n.fem lassitude W7
lassus adj weary W7
leniens, lenientis vb.ptc lenient, with soft rule W7
lenio, lenīre, lenīvī, lenītus vb to soften, soothe W7
lēnis adj soft, mild, smooth, gentle W7
Late Latin: laeticus n.masc serf W7
Medieval Latin: lenitivus adj lenitive, softening W7
Old French: alas interj alas W7
las adj weary W7
li(e)ge n.masc feudal servant; feudal lord W7
ligeance n.fem allegiance W7
Middle French: lassitude n.fem fatigue W7
lenitif adj lenitive, that makes things softer W7
ligeance n.fem allegiance W7
Latvian: lēni adv slowly LRC
Gheg: lą vb to leave IEW
Tosk: lë vb to leave IEW


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VII=class 7
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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