Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. lē̆ig-, līg-   'form, appearance; like, similar'

Semantic Field(s): Form, Shape (n), Like, Similar


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ǣlc pron each AHD/W7/ASD
gelīc adj like AHD/W7
līc n.str.neut lich, corpse W7/OED
-līc(e) adj/adv.sfx -ly AHD/W7
līc-hama, līc-homa n.wk.masc flesh, body ASD
līcian vb.wk to like, please AHD/W7
onlīc adj alike AHD/W7/ASD
Middle English: alik, ilik, ilich adj alike W7
ech adj each W7
every, everich adj every W7
lich n lich, corpse, cadaver W7
like adj like W7
likely adj likely W7
liken vb to like W7
-ly adj/adv.sfx -ly AHD/W7
lycheyate n lych-gate W7
English: alike adj like AHD/W7
each adj re: individual(s) having similar relation AHD/W7
every adj re: each individual/part of group AHD/W7
frolic adj merry(-like), full of fun AHD/W7
lich n.obs trunk, body OED
like adj similar, (nearly) the same AHD/W7
like vb to be suitable/agreeable to AHD/W7
likely adj probable AHD/W7
-ly adj.sfx having specified form/characteristic(s) AHD/W7
-ly adv.sfx in specified form/manner AHD/W7
lych-gate n roofed gate under which bier rests early in burial service AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: līk n lich ASD
līkia vb to like, please ASD
līkkoma, līcma n flesh, body ASD
Middle Dutch: vrolijc adj frolic AHD/W7
Dutch: elk adj each ASD
lichaam n lich TLL
vroolijk adj frolic AHD/W7
Old Saxon: gilīk adj like ASD
līk n lich ASD
līk-hamo n lich, flesh ASD
līkōn vb to like, please ASD
Old High German: gilīh, gelich adj like, alike W7/ASD
iogilīh adj each W7
līchamo n lich, flesh ASD
-līh adj/adv.sfx -ly W7
līh n lich ASD
German: gleich adj like ASD
Leiche n.fem lich, corpse, cadaver LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: glīkligr adj likely W7
(g)līkr adj like LRC
Old Icelandic: glīkr adj like ASD
Icelandic: lík n lich ASD
líka vb to like, please ASD
líkami, líkamr n lich, flesh ASD
Danish: legeme n lich TLL
lig n lich ASD
ligesaa conj as TLL
Swedish: lik n lich ASD
lika conj as TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: ga-leiks adj like ASD
leik n.str.neut lich, flesh LRC
Lithuanian: lýg conj as, like LRC
lýgus, lýgi adj like, equal LRC
Latvian: līdzīgs adj similar, equal to LRC
līdzināt, līdzinu, līdzināju vb to be similar to LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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