Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. leig-, loig-   'to hop, jump, tremble'

Semantic Field(s): to Jump, Leap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: lāc n state, activity; play, sport, trick ASD/IEW
lācan vb to play, trick; swing, wave about ASD
lāwerce n.fem lark (laverock) ASD/W7
wedlāc n marriage bond W7
Middle English: dweomerla(i)k n demerlayk, legerdemain, sleight-of-hand LRC
lark n lark W7
leik n game, sport, contest; trick MED
leiken vb to play, trifle; trick, betray, beguile, deceive MED
wedlok n wedlock W7
English: demerlayk n magic, witchcraft, sorcery, occult art/practice OED
dwimmerlaik n Eowyn's epithet for Nazgul Lord in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
lark n singing bird of Europe/Asia/north Africa AHD/W7
wedlock n matrimony, (state of) marriage AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: lērihha, lērahha n lark ASD/W7
Middle High German: leichen vb to play ASD
lērche n lark (laverock) ASD
German: Lerche n lark (laverock) ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: leikr n.masc play, game, sport, action; scorn, mockery, derision ICE/IEW
Old Icelandic: leika vb to play, trick, delude; move, swing, wave ASD/ICE
Icelandic: lævirki n lark (laverock) ASD
Danish: lege vb to play, trick, delude ICE
Swedish: leka vb to play, trick, delude ICE
East Germanic  
Gothic: laikan vb to play ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MED=Robert E. Lewis et al., eds. Middle English Dictionary (1954-1999, 2001)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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