Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: leig̑h-, sleig̑h-   'to lick'

Semantic Field(s): to Lick


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ligim vb to lick GED
Welsh: llyfu, llyv vb to lick LRC
Old English: liccian vb.wk to lick ASD/GED
Middle English: lechour n lecher W7
licken vb to lick W7
English: cunnilingus n oral stimulation of vulva/clitoris AHD/W7
lecher n one who engages in lechery AHD/W7
lichen n thallophytic plants (algae/fungi) growing in symbiosis AHD/W7
lick vb to draw tongue over AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: lekkōn, likkōn vb to lick GED
Middle Low German: slec n.str.masc sweet-tooth GED
slicken vb.wk to lick GED
Old High German: leckōn, lec(c)hōn vb to lick ASD/GED
German: (sch)lecken vb to lick LRC
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: sleikja vb to lick GED
East Germanic  
Gothic: *bi-laigon vb.wk.II to lick GED
Latin: cunnilingus n.masc one who licks the vulva W7
lichen n.neut moss W7
linctus, linctūs n.masc act of licking W7
lingō, lingere, linxī, linctus vb to lick GED
Old French: lecheor n.masc lecher, glutton, parasite, felon W7
Lithuanian: liežiù vb to lick GED
Old Church Slavonic: ližǫ vb to lick GED
Greek: l(e)ichēn n.masc moss; leprosy W7
λείχω vb to lick GED
λιχνεύω vb to lick GED
Armenian: liz(an)em vb to lick GED
Avestan: raēz- vb to lick GED
Sanskrit: lihati vb to lick LRC
léhmi vb to lick GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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