Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. leig-, leig̑-   'to tie, bind, ligate'

Semantic Field(s): to Bind


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: alay n alloy AHD
allien vb to ally W7
leche n leech W7
ligament n ligament W7
ligature n ligature W7
obligen vb to oblige W7
relien vb to rally W7
religioun n religion W7
English: alloy n fineness, comparative purity re: mixture with base metal(s) AHD/W7
alloy vb to reduce purity by mixing with other metal(s) W7
ally vb to associate, unite/form connection between AHD/W7
colligate vb.trans to bind/group/unite together AHD/W7
furl vb to wrap/roll (sail/flag) around/close to something AHD/W7
league n association of nations/political entities AHD/W7
leech n vertical edge of square sail AHD/W7
legato adv smooth, with successive tones connected (music) AHD/W7
liable adj responsible, obligated by law/equity AHD/W7
liaison n interrelationship, close bond/connection AHD/W7
liana n climbing woody vine AHD/W7
lien n charge on real/personal property for debt satisfaction AHD/W7
ligament n tough tissue band connecting bones/supporting organs AHD/W7
ligate vb.trans to tie with ligature AHD/W7
ligature n something used to tie/bind AHD/W7
oblige vb to compel, force AHD/W7
rally vb to muster for common purpose AHD/W7
religion n service/worship of God/supernatural AHD/W7
rely vb.intrans to trust, have confidence AHD/W7
Scots English: ligg n league W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: alloi n alloy TLL
Middle Low German: līk n bolt-rope W7
Middle High German: geleich n joint W7
German: Religion n.fem religion LRC
Latin: alligo, alligāre vb to bind W7
colligo, colligare, colligavi, colligatus vb to bind together W7
ligamen n.neut band, tie W7
ligamentum n.neut band, tie, ligament W7
ligo, ligāre, ligāvī, ligātus vb to tie, bind W7
obligo, obligare vb to bind to W7
religio, religionis n.fem religion, reverence, scrupulousness W7
religo, religare vb to tie back W7
Late Latin: ligatura n.fem ligature W7
Medieval Latin: ligamentum n.neut ligament W7
Portuguese: ligar vb to ligate TLL
Spanish: ligar vb to ligate TLL
Old French: alier vb to unite W7
lier vb to bind W7
obliger vb to oblige W7
ralier vb to rally W7
Old North French: allai n alloy AHD
allayer vb to alloy AHD
ferlier vb to tie tightly W7
Anglo-French: liable adj liable, bound W7
Middle French: aloi n.masc alloy, combination (of metals) W7
aloier vb to combine W7
ferler vb to tie tightly W7
liaison n.fem liaison W7
lien n.masc band, binding W7
lier vb to bind W7
ligature n.fem ligature, binding W7
ligue n.fem league of countries, tribes, etc. W7
relier vb to rally, connect W7
French: aloi n alloy AHD
liaison n.fem liaison, connection, link W7
liane n.fem liana W7
lier vb to tie W7
rallier vb to rally W7
Old Italian: liga n.fem league W7
ligare vb to bind W7
Italian: legare vb to ligate TLL
legato n.masc legacy W7
Albanian: lith vb to tie W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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