Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: leik-   'to leave, relinquish'

Semantic Field(s): to Leave, Relinquish


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: fliuch adj damp W7
lēicid vb to leave, relinquish LRC
Old English: lǣn, lān n.fem loan ASD/W7
lǣnan vb.wk to lend ASD/W7
lēon vb.str to lend ASD/W7
Middle English: eclipse n eclipse W7
lenden vb to lend W7
lenen vb to lend W7
licour n liquor W7
liquid adj liquid W7
lon n loan W7
prolix adj prolix W7
relik n relic W7
relinquisshen vb to relinquish W7
English: delinquent adj offending by neglect/violation of duty/law AHD/W7
deliquesce vb.intrans to melt away AHD/W7
derelict adj run down, abandoned by owner/occupant AHD/W7
eclipse n total/partial obscuration of one star/planet by another AHD/W7
ellipsis n omission of word(s) that can be supplied by reader/hearer AHD/W7
lend, lent vb.wk to give for use temporarily (pending return) AHD/W7
liquate vb.trans to separate out by application of heat AHD/W7
liquefy vb to reduce to liquid state AHD/W7
liquescent adj melting, being/tending to become liquid AHD/W7
liquid adj flowing freely (like water) AHD/W7
liquor n liquid substance AHD/W7
lixiviate vb.trans to extract (from solid mixture) by washing/percolation AHD/W7
loan n money lent at interest AHD/W7
prolix adj unduly prolonged/drawn out AHD/W7
relic n object esteemed/venerated due to association with saint/martyr AHD/W7
relinquish vb.trans to abandon, retreat/withdraw from AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: lēn n.neut grant, fee, fief ASD
lēna vb to lend, grant ASD
lēra vb to teach, instruct ASD
līa vb to lend ASD
Old Saxon: (far-)līhan vb to lend ASD
lērian vb to teach, instruct ASD
Old Low German: līan vb to lend ASD
Old High German: lēhan n.neut loan, fee ASD
lēhanon vb to borrow ASD
lēran vb to teach, instruct ASD
līhan vb to lend LRC
German: lehen n.neut fief, fee ASD
lehnen vb to lend ASD
lehren vb to teach, instruct ASD
leihen vb to lend ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: lān n loan W7
ljā vb to lend LRC
Icelandic: lána vb to lend ASD
léna vb to grant ASD
ljá vb to lend ASD
læra vb to teach; learn ASD
Danish: lære vb to teach; learn ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: leiƕan vb to lend LRC
Latin: delinquens, delinquentis adj/vb.ptc offensive, delinquent W7
delinquo, delinquere vb to fail, offend W7
deliquesco, deliquescere vb to melt, dissolve W7
derelinquo, derelinquere, derelīquī, derelictus vb to abandon W7
eclipsis n.fem eclipse W7
ellipsis n.fem ellipse W7
linquō, linquere, līquī, -- vb.I to quit, leave, go away W7
liquefacio, liquefacere vb.III to liquefy W7
liqueo, liquēre vb.II to be fluid W7
liquesco, liquescere vb to become liquid W7
liquidus adj fluid W7
liquō, liquāre vb.II to melt, dissolve, make fluid W7
liquor, liquoris n.masc fluid, fluidity W7
lixa n.fem lye, water W7
lixivius adj made of lye W7
prolixus adj extended W7
relinquo, relinquere vb to abandon, leave behind W7
reliquiae remains W7
reliquus, reliqua, reliquum adj remaining, left behind LRC
Late Latin: lixivium n.neut lye W7
reliquiae remains of a martyr W7
Medieval Latin: reliquia relics W7
Old French: licour n.fem liquid, liquor, nectar W7
relique n.fem relic W7
Middle French: liquefier vb to liquefy W7
liquide adj fluid W7
prolixe adj prolix, generous W7
relinquir, relinquiss- vb to relinquish W7
French: éclipse n.fem eclipse W7
Old Prussian: polīnka vb to remain LRC
Lithuanian: laĩkas n.masc time LRC
laikýti, laĩko, laĩkė vb to keep LRC
lìkti, líeka, lìko vb to remain LRC
palìkti, paliẽka, palìko vb to leave LRC
Latvian: likt vb to leave LRC
palikt, palieku, paliku vb to remain, become LRC
Homeric Greek: λείπω vb to quit, leave LRC
Greek: ekleipw vb to fail, omit, suffer eclipse W7
ekleipsis n.fem omition, eclipse W7
elleipw vb to leave out, fall short W7
elleipsis n.fem ellipsis, ellipse W7
Armenian: lk'anem vb to leave LRC
Avestan: irinaḫti vb to leave W7
Sanskrit: riṅákti vb to leave W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
II=class 2
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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