Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. leip-   'to smear (with fat), stick'

Semantic Field(s): to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: belīfan vb to remain, be left over W7
endleofan nbr.card eleven (11) W7
lǣfan, lǣfde, lǣfed vb.wk.I to leave LRC
lāf n.fem relic, remnant, survivor, what is left ASD
lēon vb to lend W7
libban, lifde, lifd vb.wk.III to live LRC
līf n.neut life LRC
Līf-frea͡ prop.n.wk.masc lit. Life-lord LRC
līflīc adj lively W7
Middle English: alyve adj alive MEV
delayen vb to delay W7
enleven nbr.card eleven (11) W7
leven vb to leave W7
lif n life W7
lively adj lively W7
liven vb to live W7
English: aliphatic adj re: fat AHD/W7
alive adj living LRC
delay vb to postpone, put off AHD/W7
eleven nbr.card 11, lit. one left AHD/W7
Fréaláf prop.n 10th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Guthláf prop.n Theoden's flag-bearer in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
leave, left vb.wk to depart, bequeath AHD/W7
life n quality distinguishing vital/functional being from dead body/inert matter AHD/W7
live vb to be alive, have plant/animal life AHD/W7
lively adj living AHD/W7
relay n supply arranged for successive relief AHD/W7
relay vb to provide fresh relays AHD
synalepha n blending of successive vowels into one syllable AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: andlova, elleva nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
lāva n relic, remnant, survivor, what is left ASD
lēva vb to leave ASD
libba vb to live ASD
līf n life ASD
Frisian: alue, alve nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
Dutch: blijven vb to stay, remain ASD
Old Saxon: ellevan nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
farleƀian vb to remain ASD
lēƀa n relic, remnant, survivor, what is left ASD
lēƀōn vb to be left ASD
libbian vb to live ASD
līf n life ASD
Old High German: einlif nbr.card eleven (11) W7
lebēn vb to live W7
leiba n relic, remnant, survivor, what is left ASD
leibēn vb to remain ASD
leibjan vb to leave ASD
līp n life ASD
pilīpan vb to stay, remain ASD
verleiben vb to leave W7
Middle High German: beliben vb to stay, remain ASD
einlef, einlif nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
German: bleiben vb to stay, remain ASD
e(i)lf nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
Leben n.neut life LRC
leben vb to live LRC
Leib n.masc relic, remnant, survivor, what is left LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: leifa, leifað vb to leave LRC
lifa, lifað vb to live LRC
líf n.neut life LRC
Icelandic: ellifu nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
leif n relic, remnant, survivor, what is left ASD
leifa vb to leave ASD
lifa vb to live ASD
líf n life, body, person ASD
Danish: blive vb to stay, remain ASD
elleve nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
Swedish: blifva, bli vb to stay, remain ASD
elfva nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: aflifnan vb.wk.IV to stay, remain LRC
ainlif nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
bi-laibjan vb to remain ASD
laiba n remnant ASD
liban vb to live ASD
Latin: caelebs adj unmarried W7
laxo, laxāre vb to loosen, slacken W7
Old French: delaier vb to postpone W7
laier vb to leave W7
laissier vb to leave, let go W7
Homeric Greek: ἄλειφαρ, ἄλειφατος n.neut oil, fat, ointment LRC
ἀλείφω vb to smear, anoint (with oil) LRC
λίπα adv richly, with oil LRC
λιπαρός adj sleek, shining (with oil) LRC
Greek: lipos n.neut fat W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
III=class 3
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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