Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. leit(h)-   'to die, go away'

Semantic Field(s): to Die; Dead; Death, to Depart, Go Away


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: brim-lād n.fem path of the sea, lit. sea lane LRC
lād n.fem lode, way, course ASD/W7
lǣdan, lǣde, lǣded vb.wk.I to lead, bring LRC
līflād n.fem livelihood ASD/W7
Līð(a) prop.n.masc June-July: Lithe (sailing season) ASD
līðan vb.str.I to sail, go (by sea) ASD/W7
Middle English: leden vb to lead W7
livelode n course of life W7
lod n load W7
lode n lode W7
English: Afterlithe prop.n Shire calendar's July in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Forelithe prop.n Shire calendar's June in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
lead, led vb.str to guide, go in front AHD/W7
Lithe prop.n midsummer hobbit holidays in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
livelihood n means of support/subsistence AHD/W7
load n pack, burden to be carried AHD/W7
lode n waterway AHD/W7
Silverlode prop.n river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: lēda vb to lead, conduct ASD
Dutch: leiden vb to lead LRC
Old Saxon: lēdian vb to lead, bring, bear ASD
līðan vb to sail, go ASD
Old Low German: lēdian, leidan vb to lead, bring ASD
Old High German: galīdan vb to sail, go ASD
leita n funeral procession ASD
leitan vb to lead, bring W7
līb-leita n livelihood, way of life ASD
German: leiten vb to lead, bring ASD
Leitung n.fem management TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: leið n.fem way, journey; road, path; manner, fashion LRC
leiða, leidd vb to lead, bring LRC
Icelandic: leið n way, course, road; levy ASD
leiða vb to lead, bring ASD
líða vb to sail, go ASD
Danish: lede vb to lead LRC
Swedish: leda vb to lead LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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