Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. leit-   'to loathe, detest, abhor; violate'

Semantic Field(s): Hate (n), to Spoil


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: liuss n aversion W7
Old English: lāþ adj/n.neut (what is) loathed, evil, hateful, grievous ASD
lāðian vb to loathe W7
lāð-spell n.str.neut painful/grievous story, lit. ill-news ASD
slīðen adj cruel, dire, evil LRC
Middle English: loth adj evil, loathsome W7
lothen vb to loathe W7
English: Láthspell prop.n Grima's epithet for Gandalf in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
loath adj reluctant, unwilling (to do something) AHD/W7
loathe vb.trans to hate, detest, dislike greatly AHD/W7
loathsome adj causing loathing W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: lēð adj/n (what is) loathed, evil, hateful, grievous ASD
Old Saxon: lēð adj/n (what is) loathed, evil, hateful, grievous ASD
Old High German: leid adj loathsome W7
leid n hurt, evil, trouble, what is hateful ASD
German: Leid n hurt, evil, trouble, what is hateful ASD
leid adj loathed, evil, hateful, grievous ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: leiðr adj loathed, evil, hateful, grievous ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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