Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. lendh-   'hip, loins; kidney'

Semantic Field(s): Leg, Belly, Stomach


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: lendenu loins W7
Middle English: loyne n loin W7
surloin n sirloin AHD/W7
English: loin n biped/quadruped body part near spinal column between hipbone and false ribs AHD/W7
lumbago n muscular rheumatism in lumbar region AHD/W7
lumbar adj re: loins/vertebrae between sacrum/thoracic vertebrae AHD/W7
sirloin n cut of meat from hindquarter in front of round AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Low German: lenda n.fem loins ASD
Old High German: lenti n.fem loins ASD
German: Lende n.fem loins ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: lend n.fem loins ASD
Latin: longe adv far, by far W7
lumbus n.masc lower back W7
Vulgar Latin: lumbea loins, (lower) back W7
New Latin: lumbaris adj lumbar W7
Middle French: loigne adv far away W7
surlonge n.fem sirloin W7
Old Slavic: lędvĭję n loin W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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